chapter_16 - Chemistry The Central Science 10th edition...

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Acids and Bases Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Chemistry, The Central Science , 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Andrzej A. Jarzecki Fall 2007 Brooklyn College
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Acids and Bases Some Definitions Arrhenius Acid: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. Base: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions.
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Acids and Bases Some Definitions Brønsted–Lowry Acid: Proton donor Base: Proton acceptor
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Acids and Bases A Brønsted–Lowry acid… …must have a removable (acidic) proton. A Brønsted–Lowry base… …must have a pair of nonbonding electrons.
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Acids and Bases If it can be either… ...it is amphiprotic . HCO 3 HSO 4 H 2 O
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Acids and Bases What Happens When an Acid Dissolves in Water? Water acts as a Brønsted–Lowry base and abstracts a proton (H + ) from the acid. As a result, the conjugate base of the acid and a hydronium ion are formed.
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Acids and Bases Conjugate Acids and Bases: From the Latin word conjugare , meaning “to join together.” Reactions between acids and bases always yield their conjugate bases and acids.
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Acids and Bases Acid and Base Strength Strong acids are completely dissociated in water. Their conjugate bases are quite weak. Weak acids only dissociate partially in water. Their conjugate bases are weak bases.
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Acids and Bases Acid and Base Strength Substances with negligible acidity do not dissociate in water. Their conjugate bases are exceedingly strong.
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Acids and Bases Acid and Base Strength In any acid-base reaction, the equilibrium will favor the reaction that moves the proton to the stronger base.
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Acids and Bases Acid and Base Strength
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Acids and Bases Autoionization of Water As we have seen, water is amphoteric. In pure water, a few molecules act as bases and a few act as acids. This is referred to as autoionization .
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Acids and Bases Ion-Product Constant The equilibrium expression for this process is K c = [H 3 O + ] [OH ] This special equilibrium constant is referred to as the ion-product constant for water, K w .
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