25 - 25[= 25-1,2,3(Newton(Coulomb F F m 1 m 2 =-G = 0 m 1m...

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25장. 전위 [= (정)전기퍼텐셜] 25-1,2,3 정전기 퍼텐셜/위치 에너지, 전위/(정)전기퍼텐셜, 등전위면 중력법칙 (Newton)과 정전기력법칙 (Coulomb) 비교: F 중력 ( m 1 m 2 ) = - G ( m 1 m 2 r 12 2 ) r ˆ 12 F 정전기력 ( q 1 q 2 ) = 1 4πε 0 ( q 1 q 2 r 12 2 ) r ˆ 12 정전기력도 보존력 퍼텐셜/위치 에너지를 정의 할 수 있음 1. 정전기 퍼텐셜/위치 에너지 전하를 무한히 먼 곳에서 끌어오는데 드는 에너지 U 전하 q ( r) r (- F 전하 q )⋅ d r = - r q E⋅ d r , 단위: [J = N․m] 2. 전위/(정)전기퍼텐셜 단위 전하를 무한히 먼 곳에서 끌어오는데 드는 에너지 V ( r) ≡ U q ( r) q = - r E⋅ d r , 단위: [J/C] [volt = V] 전자볼트 eV (electron volt, ) (아주 작은 에너지의 단위) 전자 하나의 전하량( e ≡ | q 전자 | )을 1 volt 전위차 옮기는데 드는 에너지 1 eV ≡ e ( 1 V) = (1.60 × 10 - 19 C) × (1 J/C) = 1.60 × 10 - 19 J 전기장의 차원 두가지 [N/C]
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