42 - 42 42-1(41 = 0 0 = = 42-2 1 =(amorphous(1 2(20 42-3 1 =

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42੢. ب୓੄ ੹ӝ੹ب 42-1 ࢲۿ: ب୓੄ ࣁ҅ খ(41੢): ਗ੗ ഓ۽ ( Ù ࢚ഐ੘ਊ = 0) ইې: ਗ੗ ૘ױ ( Ù ࢚ഐ੘ਊ ¸ 0) = Ҋ୓ + ঘ୓ + ӝ୓ + « (Ҋ୓+ৌ ঘ୓, ঘ୓+ৌ ӝ୓) Ҋ୓ (੹ӝ੹ب) = 도체(초전도체 ನೣ )★ + ੺ো୓ + 반도체★ + « [¼അ؀ࢎഥীࢲ ਽ਊ੄ ઺ਃࢿ] 42-2 Ҋ୓੄ ࢿ૕ 1. Ҋ୓ Ҋ୓(ҳઑ/ਗ੗ߓৌ) = Ѿ੿ ( Ù ӏ஗੸ ߓৌ) + ࠺੿૕(amorphous) ( Ù ࠛӏ஗੸ ߓৌ) (ࠁӝ: ਬܻ) ਗ੗(1ઙܨ ੉࢚) Ü ਗ੗੄ ߓৌҳઑ ׮ܰӝب ൓ো, ׮੉ইހ٘) ૘ױഋࢿઑѤ ౣܽ ҳઑ(ਗ੗ߓৌ ١) Ü ࢿ૕ ൓ো,٣੉ইހ٘ - ъب,ైݶࢿ) 2. Ҋ୓੄ ੹ӝ੸ ࢿ૕ ਗ੗ীࢲ উଃ ੹੗ Ü ਗ੗೨ী ъೠ ࣘ߅ ߄Ӵ Ü ਗ੗೨ী ডೠ ࣘ߅ о੢߄Ӵԇ૕ ੹੗(·ਗ੗о ੹੗¶) Ü Ѣ੄ ੗ਬ۽਍ ਗ੗ࢎ੉ ਍ز (Ҋ୓ઙܨ + ৻ࠗઑѤ Ü ਍ز੄ ੿بର੉) Ҋ୓ ੹ӝౠࢿ ੉೧: ন੗৉೟ ߊ׳(20ࣁӝ)۽ ؊਌ ഛप೧ ઎਺
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42-3 Ѿ੿Ҋ୓੄ ীց૑ ળਤ/ڽ 1-ਗ੗: ীց૑ ળਤо ੉࢑੸ (੉࢑੸ = ࠛোࣘ੸ਵ۽ ڸষڸষ ڄয૓) -ਗ੗(૘ױ): ࢚ഐ੘ਊ Ü ળਤٜ੉ оө੉ ݽৈ •ীց૑ڽ(energy band)‚ܳ ഋࢿೣ : 2ਗ੗о ੽Ӕ ୭৻п੹੗ ࢚ഐ੘ਊ੉ о੢ ௼Ҋ Ӓ ࢚క Ü Ѿ೤࢚క & ߈Ѿ೤࢚క (ળਤо ডр ౣܿ) ( ߣҀ஘ 1-ਗ੗ ળਤ) ٜ Ü ( ѐ੄ ઑӘঀౣܽ ળਤ ڽ ) ٜ ઱য૓ Ҋ୓ Ü ਗ੗੄ Ü ੹੗(୭৻п)੄ Pauli ߓఋਗܻ (ೠ ࢚కী ੹੗ ೞաঀ) ڽ: ·ٜয੓ח¶Ѫ (·Ԥଲ¶Ѫ Ù ·ਗ੗оڽ¶ valence band ನೣ) & ·࠼¶Ѫ ( Ù ·੹بڽ¶ conduction band) ীց૑рѺ(energy gap) (ਪڸ੄ ߄ׯ)-(ইۖڸ੄ ݔਤ) উ੿ػ(୭ࣗ ୨ীց૑) Ҋ୓Ѿ੿(ਗ੗૘ױ/࢚ഐ੘ਊ)੄ ୭৻п੹੗ٜ਷ ߓఋ ਗܻী ٮۄ ծ਷࢚కࠗఠ ଻਍׮. Ӓٜ ݽفܳ ࣻਊೞ۰ݶ ࢚׼൤ ֫਷ ળਤө૑ ੹੗ܳ ଻ਕঠ ೠݴ, ޛ૕ী ٮۄ ੹੗о ٜয ੓ח ীց ૑ڽ৬ ࠺য੓ח ڽ ࢎ੉ী ীց૑рѺ(energy gap)੉ ઓ੤ೡ ੓׮.
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42-4 ੺ো୓৬ ب୓ 1. ੺ো୓ Ù [ Ԥଲ ীց૑ڽ] [ ীց૑рѺ] [ ࠺য੓ח ীց૑ ળਤ۽ ੹੗о औѱ ৢۄт হযࢲ ৻ࠗ ੹ӝ੢ਸ ߉ইب ੹ӝо ൒ܰ૑ ޅೠ׮. 2. ب୓(conductor) Ù [Ԥଲ ীց૑ڽ]-[࠼ ীց૑ڽ] ࢎ੉ рѺ হ਺ ৻ࠗ Ѧয઱ݶ ੹੗о औѱ ࠺য੓ח ਑૒ੌ ੓׮ ৘: Әࣘ(metal) ب୓/੺ো୓ח ੹੗о ର੓ח ীց૑ڽ(ਗ੗о(੹੗)ڽ, valence band)৬ য੓ח ীց૑ڽ(੹بڽ, conduction band) ࢎ੉ী ীց૑рѺ੉ ੓וջ וջ۽ Ѿ੿ػ׮.
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42-6 ߈ب୓(semiconductor) ߈ب୓ Ù [ ੺ো୓] [ (੘਷ ীց૑рѺ) (࢚ৡ ৌীց૑)] ৡبо ծਸ ٸ ੺ো୓૑݅ ৡبо ֫ই૑ݶ ਗ੗оڽ ੹੗о ੹بڽ۽ ৢۄ о ب୓৬ э੉ ؼ ੓׮. ੹ӝ੸ ࢿ૕ਸ औѱ ઁযೡ ੓Ҋ ࣗ੗(devices)ܳ ٜ݅ݶ ࣗഋച, ੹ӝীց૑ ࣗ࠺੄ ӓࣗച, оѺ੄
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42 - 42 42-1(41 = 0 0 = = 42-2 1 =(amorphous(1 2(20 42-3 1 =

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