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Unformatted text preview: TEST 1 STUDYGUIDE Archaeological fieldwork o Systematic survey and excavation Provides a regional prospective by gathering information on settlement patterns over a large area Locating and finding archaeological sites Systematic removal of soil and other material Digging through layers of cultural and natural strata o Archaeological excavation Excavation compliments the regional surveys 1) site mapped and surface collected 2) site subdivided by systematic grid 3) digging and sifting of soils and materials o Recovering and recording Artifacts Features 4) archaeologists use this information o Answer the research question o Protect or describe the cultural resources o Ethnographic fieldwork Interacting with people and cultural behaviors Observing, participating, learning, understanding, recording. Ethnographic techniques Participant- observation : learning a culture through social participation and personal observation over a long period of time Interviews : conversations that helps maintain rapport and provides knowledge about whats going on Genealogical methods : procedures by which anthropologists discover and record connections of kinship, decent, and marriage. Key cultural consultants : people who are experts on particular aspects of local life; community midwife would help with info on childbirth. Life histories : a personal cultural portrait of existence or change in a culture. Emic vs etic : comparison of local beliefs and perceptions to the ethnographers Large scale approaches : ethnography is incereasingly multi-timed and multi-sited Survey research Survey design research- sampling, impersonal data collection, and statistical analysis o Sample o Random sample o Variables Survey research considerably more impersonal than ethnography Fieldwork and ethics A set or system of moral principles Problems involving contrasting systems o Fieldwork outside their country or culture of origin o Who owns the research o Who is impacted by the research American Anthropological Association (AAA) Code They should not exploit the people that they study Should seek permission (landowners, the govt) Sould tell people why youre doing the research. Whats the end result/ purpose. Should tell potential costs and benefits, the impact of the study. Treat colleagues in host countries appropriately o Inclusiveness o Collaboration o Publication o Give back Ethics Anthropologists primary ethical obligations is to the people, species, and materials they study. Informed Consent o Peoples agreement to participate After being fully informed Purpose Nature Procedures Potential impact Culture o Set of learned behavior and ideas that humans acquire as members of societies....
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