GEOG 1011 Midterm 3 Study Guide

GEOG 1011 Midterm 3 Study Guide - What are the two biggest...

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What are the two biggest uses for water in the US? 48% thermoelectric power generation 34% irrigation How much water does it take to run a clothes dryer for 30 minutes? 40gal per kWh = 20 gallons What are the two largest freshwater reservoirs on Earth? Glaciers and snow 24,064 x 10 3 km 3 Groundwater 23,400 x 10 3 km 3 Snow and ice is the largest reservoir of freshwater, but most of that water is in places not very accessible to people—Greenland and Antarctica. So the largest useful water reservoir is groundwater. What is evapotranspiration? How does evapotranspiration contrast with evaporation? This term includes two parts- evaporation from surfaces and transpiration from plants. Transpiration is the water released from plants due to respiration (CH 2 O = CO 2 + H 2 0) as well as passive transfer of water up from roots and out through stomata (pore-like openings) in leaves. Why is evapotranspiration considered an important water source? Note that evapotranspiration is an important source of water to the land surface: over half of the rain and snowfall on land has been recycled at least once on land. What is residence time (how is it defined), and what are the residence times for the primary reservoirs of water on earth? Residence time = Flow rate of reservoir Flow rate in or out What are two ways to think about what a residence time means? The residence time has units of time, and can be thought of as the time to fill an empty reservoir, or the average time a parcel of water will spend in the reservoir. Why do we consider a reservoir to be effectively non-renewable if the residence time for water in it is very long? Not much water in rivers, but it is replenished so quickly that it is a very renewable source. In contrast, groundwater is a very large reservoir, but long residence time means that it takes a very long time to replenish it, and in some cases can be considered non-renewable. What is the water scarcity index? At what value of the water scarcity index is a region considered highly water stressed? Is Colorado considered highly water stressed? The water scarcity index is the ratio of water withdrawn for human use divided by the renewable water available for human use. Rws = W – S (W is water withdrawn, S is amount of freshwater produced, Q is
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Q available fresh water—the runoff) Water resource specialists have decided that if RWS is greater than 0.4, then the region is highly waterstressed. Some areas in Colorado are considered highly stressed. What is a watershed? The scale at which we consider water balance is the watershed scale. A watershed (or drainage basin or catchment) is the entire land surface that drains to a point along a river. Any precipitation that falls in the watershed potentially can flow out in a river. Any precipitation that falls outside the watershed cannot contribute to streamflow within the watershed. What is the water balance equation for a watershed? Which terms in the water balance
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course GEOG 1011 taught by Professor Anderson,s during the Fall '07 term at Colorado.

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GEOG 1011 Midterm 3 Study Guide - What are the two biggest...

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