Ch 1 - The Scientific Study Of Life Chapter 1 Objectives...

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Unformatted text preview: The Scientific Study Of Life Chapter 1 Objectives Outline the universal characteristics of living Outline things things s Describe the Scientific Classification System s Outline the Scientific Method as a process s Chapter 1 Page1 s s Biology is the study of life Living organisms have several properties and Living common characteristics common x Exhibit order Ability to reproduce Ability to grow and develop Utilization of energy ( metabolism) response to external environmental stimuli Ability to adapt x x x x x Chapter 1 Page2 s Living organisms have several properties Living and common characteristics con’t and x Maintenance of homeostasis x Homeostasis maintains living systems in an Homeostasis acceptable range acceptable Chapter 1 Page 3 s s s s Cell: most basic structure in living organisms, Cell: capable of carrying out all of the activities fundamental to life fundamental Cell is the structural and functional unit of life Robert Hooke, an English Scientist, Robert First described and named cells in 1665. First There are two main types of cells: Prokaryotes and There Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Chapter 1 Page 4 s Characteristics of Prokaryotes x bacteria x lack many of the organelles of eukaryotes x smaller x many have cell walls x have single stranded DNA Chapter 1 Page 5 s Characteristics of Eukaryotes x plants, animals, fungi, protista animals, fungi, x membrane bound well defined nucleus x complex organelles complex x cell wall only in plants x double stranded DNA Prokaryotes Vs Eukaryotes Chapter 1 Page 6 s Cells are organized in tissues, x organs, organs, x organ systems, organ x individuals, individuals, x populations, populations, x communities x and ecosystems Chapter 1 Page 7 Biologists classify organisms into groups Biologists with similar characteristics to understand the diversity of life the s Classification of organisms = taxonomy s The system progresses from the most The general to the most specific general s Chapter 1 Page 8 The “system” Kingdom Kingdom Phylum Phylum Class Class Order Order Family Family Genus Genus Species Species TheSystem s Based on information obtained the System Based has been modified and is much more complicated than we will take time to explain in our class. There are now several Domains above the There Kingdom Level – Please read about them Kingdom s Chapter 1 Page 9 s For our purposes we will discuss the Five For Basic Kingdoms: Basic x Monera = Bacteria x Protista = unicellular eukaryotes x Plantae = plants x Fungi = mushrooms, slime molds, fungi x Animalia = animals Chapter1 Page 10 Science means to know in Latin s Scientific Method specifies a process used Scientific to find answers to s there are many different approaches s Chapter1 Page 11 s Scientific Process ( Method) x Review accumulated scientific data x Formulate hypothesis x Experiment and observe to collect data x Evaluate results Chapter1 Page 12 s Facts to remember regarding hypotheses x They reflect past experience with similar They questions questions x Propose multiple hypotheses whenever possible x Hypotheses should be testable via scientific Hypotheses process process x Hypotheses can be eliminated, but not proven Hypotheses with 100% certainty with Hypotheses Con’t s H0 = There is no difference Example: There will be no difference in the stalking behavior of lions born in zoos and lions born in the wild HA = There is a difference Example: Lions born in the wild will stalk prey more efficiently than those born in zoos. s s s Positive and Negative Feedback s Used to regulate function in many Used biological systems biological Prevents was of energy and biochemicals in Prevents living systems living Helps maintain homeostasis s s Positive and Negative Feedback ...
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