05 -- synaptic physiology 2

05 -- synaptic physiology 2 - Survey of Neurotransmitter...

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Survey of Neurotransmitter Systems
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Review Many molecules used as neurotransmitters 50+ and counting Generally classified into 2 supergroups: Small Molecule Transmitters Small Molecule Transmitters Biogenic Amines (Monoamines) Acetylcholine [Ach] Catecholamines Dopamine [DA] Epinephrine [adrenaline] Norepinephrine [NE, noradrenaline] Indolamines Serotonin [5-HT] Imidazoleamines Histamine Amino Acids Glutamate -amino butryic acid [GABA] Glycine Peptides Peptides •Endogenous Opioids –Endorphins –Enkephalins •Endogenous Cannabinoids –Anandamide •Hypothalamic Hormones –Vasopressin [ADH] –Oxytocin •Many Others –Substance P – Intestinal Hormones (CCK, GIP)
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Preview Our goal: Discuss production of several NT in presynaptic cell Survey set of receptors associated with those NT Structure Function Will talk about some interesting neuropharmacology also
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Acetylcholine First molecule found to be a NT Most well characterized Very prevalent throughout body Neuromuscular Junction Autonomic Ganglia Eye Etc.
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Acetylcholine Chemistry Synthesized in axon terminal * note: choline part reused, acetyl part not ** several toxins known to interact with AChE from glucose from extracellular fluid (via plasma)
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Acetylcholine Receptors Has both both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors
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Acetylcholine Receptors ACh Ionotropic Receptor = Nicotinic Nicotinic Receptor Good time to introduce a common theme among ALL NT receptors (esp ionotropic): usually not one single protein molecule several proteins (each called a subunit subunit ) put together to form channel An individual subunit β
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Acetylcholine Receptors ACh Ionotropic Receptor = Nicotinic Nicotinic Receptor Allows cations (+ charged) to move across membrane Na+ K + some Ca 2+ Found on muscle cells at junction between motor neurons and muscle Also on CNS neurons those contain 3α and 2β subunits
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