06 -- Neuroanatomy

06 -- Neuroanatomy - Overview of the Human Nervous System...

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Overview of the Human Nervous System Mostly covered in Bear text   Chapter 7 Appendix,  pp. 205-235 OBJECTIVES: Terminology - so we can talk about where things are without confusion Basic anatomy of the spinal cord Basic anatomy of the brain stem Basic anatomy of cortical and subcortical structures of the brain
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Terminology – SECTIONING/DIVIDING
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Terminology – DIRECTION Anterior – front, toward the front Posterior  – back, toward the rear Superior – top, toward the top                                               Inferior – bottom, toward the  bottom Rostral – toward the nose                                                       Caudal – toward the tail Dorsal – toward the back                               Dorsal – toward the back                                                        Ventral – toward the belly                          Ventral – toward the belly
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Terminology – DIRECTION Medial – toward the midline Ipsilateral – on the same side Lateral – away from the midline Contralateral – on the opposite           side
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Vertebrate Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain Brainstem Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Nerves that come out of brainstem or spinal cord out of brain/brainstem = cranial nerves out of spinal cord = spinal nerves
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Gray matter    mostly neuron cell bodies White matter    mostly axons (white comes from  myelin) Terminology – TISSUE Brainstem Spinal Cord
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Terminology – TISSUE  Nuclei
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Our Approach “Bottom Up” Forebrain Cerebrum/Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Cerebellum Brainstem Cerebellum Pons Medulla Spinal cord
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Spinal Cord
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4 Spinal Cord Regions Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral
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Spinal Cord Features SOME ITEMS TO NOTE Conus Medullaris Cauda Equina
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Spinal Cord in Cross-Section Note the arrangement of gray and white matter
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Spinal Cord Overview Meninges or “rootlets” Spinal  Nerve Spinal Cord  Tissue
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Dorsal roots   sensory nerve  entry into CNS (afferents) Dorsal root ganglia   soma of  sensory cells Ventral roots   motor axons  (efferents) Spinal Cord Structure BACK BACK FRONT FRONT GRAY MATTER GRAY MATTER (ventral) (dorsal)
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Spinal Cord Structure WHITE MATTER WHITE MATTER BACK BACK FRONT FRONT (dorsal) (ventral)
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Spinal Nerves 31 Pairs 31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves An individual Spinal Nerve (has been cut)
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2009 for the course BIOL 450 taught by Professor Jeremyingraham during the Spring '09 term at UNC.

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06 -- Neuroanatomy - Overview of the Human Nervous System...

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