07 -- Visual system part 1

07 -- Visual system part 1 - Vision The Eye Human Vision...

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Vision: The Eye
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Human Vision Seeing depends on: Retinal  phototransduction how does light get turned into neural signal Retinal processing how do the cells of the retina work together to send  signals to the brain Brain processing How does visual info get to the brain and how does the  brain handle it
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Eye Anatomy Optic Disc
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Light Focusing Light passes through the: Cornea Aqueous humor Lens Vitreous humor     to reach the  retina retina Cornea and lens  focus focus  light onto the  retina Air:water interface at cornea  bends light ( refraction ) Lens shape altered dynamically  by muscles to fine-tune focus of  objects that are close or far  away ( accommodation )
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Retinal Features Yellowish spot in middle of retina   - few blood vessels   - central (vs peripheral) vision Pit in center of macula   - only cone-type photoreceptors These are the anatomical  landmarks of the  center  of the  retina  So this image is a view of the  LEFT LEFT  retina   Optic disk  (where vessels enter  and nerve fibers leave) is closer to  nose than fovea
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Retinal Features NOSE LEFT EYE RIGHT EYE Our view in  previous  slide
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Retinal Features Closer look reveals retina is a layered structure * You do NOT have to memorize the  names of these layers
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PR G B Microscopic Anatomy of the Retina H A 5 types of neurons PRIMARY Photoreceptors (PRs)    sense light (also called rods and cones) Bipolar cells    bridge PRs and ganglion cells Ganglion cells    output to brain (axons create the optic nerve)       only ones that generate an action potential! SECONDARY
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07 -- Visual system part 1 - Vision The Eye Human Vision...

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