03 -- 402_S2009_Psychopharm_Exercise

03 -- 402_S2009_Psychopharm_Exercise - Nikhil Patel Psych...

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Unformatted text preview: Nikhil Patel Psych 402 -- 001 Ntm. Sources Effects Synthesis Agonists/Antagonists Soluble Gases, e.g., nitric oxide or carbon monoxide-various regions of neurons, including dendrites-dilates cranial blood vessels and penile vessels (erections); also aids in control of intestinal wall muscles -possible role in neural changes due to learning nitric oxide synthase (enzyme) produces nitric oxide from arginine released as soon as it is produced (made in several regions of nerve cell including dendrites)-indirect antagonist = nitrol- L-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-inhibits production of NO-agonists: Unknown Amino Acids (GABA, Glutamate, and glycine) These actually transmit information (in addition to modulating intraneural activity such as raising/lowerin g threshold of excitation or Glutamate Throughout brain and spinal cord GABA Throughout brain and spinal cord Glycine Spinal cord and lower regions of brain Glutamate Excitatory NT GABA-inhibitory NT GlycineGlycine Inhibitory NT Glutamate-produced by various metabolic processes GABA-from glutamate via glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) Glycine unknown Glutamate Antagonist: AP5 (blocks NMDA receptor, impairs plasticity & some learning); Zinc, Mg+, PCP (indirect) (all NMDA receptors); alcohol (NMDA receptor, which is why there are seizures when withdrawing from heavy drinking) Agonist: polyamines; NMDA, AMPA, Kainate (all direct agonists) GABA Antagonist: allylglycine Nikhil Patel Psych 402 -- 001 changing rate of APs); the other ntms. modulate these excitatory or inhibitory actions (inactivates GAD), bicuculline (blocks GABA site for GABA A, direct antagonist), picrotoxin (inhibits GABA A receptor, indirect antagonist), CGP 335348 (GABA B antagonist), bacteria that causes lockjaw (tetanus) Agonist: muscimol (blocks GABA site for GABA A, direct agonist); benzodiazepines & alcohol, barbiturates, steroids (all indirect GABA A agonists), baclofen (GABA B agonist) Glycine Antagonist: bacteria that causes lockjaw (tetanus), strychnine (alkaloid, very toxic = convulsions & death) Agonists: UNKNOWN Dopamine-monoamine (midbrain areas) substantia -movement control (nigrostriatal Tyrosine Tyrosine Hydroxylase-> L- DOPA DOPA decaboxylase-> Agonists:-L-DOPA (indirect, Nikhil Patel Psych 402 -- 001 nigra (to neostriatum, nigrostriatal system) ventral tegmental area (VTA) (to limbic system, esp. nucleus accumbens, mesolimbic system) VTA (to prefrontal cortex, mesocortical system) system/basal ganglia)-reward and reinforcement factors (nucleus acumens of limbic system in mesolimbic system)-stimulation of prefrontal cortex (short-term memory, planning, strategy/preperatio n, problem solving) (mesocortical system)-lack-thereof in substantia nigra correlates with Parkinsons Dopamine precursor, can cross BBB)-cocaine and methylphenidate (block reuptake)-Amphetamine (stimulates release)-Deprenyl (blocks MAO-B)-Apomorphine (D 2 in high dose) Antagonists:- -methyl- p-tyrosine (AMPT) (indirect...
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2009 for the course PSYC 402 taught by Professor Jenniloeb during the Spring '09 term at UNC.

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03 -- 402_S2009_Psychopharm_Exercise - Nikhil Patel Psych...

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