04 -- 402_S2009_Vision Homework ANSWERS

04 -- 402_S2009_Vision Homework ANSWERS - 1 The retina is...

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1. The retina is really composed of several layers of neural cells. The photoreceptors are in the very back of the eye. Why might some say this is an “odd” design? And why is the retina designed this way? Some think it an odd design b /c light /visual information has to pass through several layers of cells (i.e.,ganglion, bipolar, horizontal, & amacrine cells) in order to teach the photoreceptors, where transduction first occurs. It is designed this way, however, b/c the back of the eye is rich in blood supply and the epithelial cells of the eye’s lining aids the photoreceptors in their function. They help to get rid of the old lamellae. 2. Why does the arrangement of the retinal cells not impede acuity? There are two reasons: a. the cells move away from the area of the fovea b. the cells are small, unmyelinated and transparent (also, the eyes are generally not completely stationary) 3. At what point (photoreceptors? bipolar neurons? ganglion cells?) are action potentials possible? ganglion cells 4. What’s the difference between ciliary muscles and extraocular muscles? ciliary muscles control the shape of the lens while the extraocular muscles controls eye movements 5. Why are we normally unaware of the blindspot? a) b/c of “completion” b) b/c our eyes are located in slightly different places; thus, each corresponding retinal cell has a slightly different view of the world than the other. (i.e., retinal disparity) this retinal disparity is also what gives rise to depth perception 6. Which side of the brain is the left visual field analyzed? To which side of the brain does the right eye send information?
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