06 -- Chapter 9 Optional Homework

06 -- Chapter 9 Optional Homework - Chapter 9 Optional...

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Chapter 9 Optional Homework 1. What three things are generally measured when someone is asleep—and what do they  measure? EOG = eye, EEG = neural activity, EMG = muscle tone 2. In relation to the EEG, what differentiates awake, non-REM sleep, and REM sleep from  each other?  How do these waveforms differ from each other? -alpha = semi-alert/REM sleep (low frequency, high amp); beta  = alert (high frequency,  low amp); theta = initial sleep (really low frequency with high amp with sleep spindle and K  complexes, K and sleep spindles may keep people awake – reduced with age); Delta = 3 rd /4 th  stages (really low f with high amp) 3. Why do you think that REM sleep sometimes be referred to as paradoxical sleep?  Describe the characteristics of REM sleep (EEG? muscle tone?  dreams?). -desynchrony of waves; paralyzed (muscle atonia), though eyes movement. Seems like  deep   sleep,   but   EEG   says   they’re   awake.   Associated   with   dreams,   though   not   complete  associated. 4. There are some people who show evidence of REM (e.g., via EEG) and yet do not   dream.  There are others who say they dream but show no evidence of REM sleep.  What  does this suggest about the relationship between dreams and REM sleep? Not an absolute relationship – can occur independently of each other 5. What are people like when you wake them up from Stage1/Stage 2 sleep?  SWS?  REM   sleep? 1 or 2 -- not asleep; SWS – groggy; REM – alert 6. Describe the pattern of sleep throughout the night.  e.g., how do we cycle through the   stages of sleep?  How does this pattern change from earlier in the evening vs. near the  time someone would wake up?
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Alternate between REM and non-REM (~90min). Towards beginning of night, more SWS  and inc REM towards end. 7. Is the brain active when sleeping?  For example, what is cerebral blood flow and/or   cerebral metabolic rate like when someone is sleeping (you may want to separate SWS  from REM sleep when answering this question)? During SWS, cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate are decreased (75%). REM flow  and metabolism is roughly what it is when awake 8. How does the pattern of cerebral blood flow during REM explain some of aspects of  REM sleep? More blood flow in visual association cortex – vivid dreams; none at Primary visual  because   no   actual   ocular   input.   Low   frontal   activity   =   lack   of   sense   of  time/judgment/planning/working memory 9. Describe insomnia and some characteristics of people who have this disorder. Difficulty falling/staying asleep (early morning awakening). Affects people differently, 
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06 -- Chapter 9 Optional Homework - Chapter 9 Optional...

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