Pathology1 - I. Pathology a. Study of functional and...

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I. Pathology a. Study of functional and structural change in cells and tissue because of direct damage or reaction to unfavorable circumstances (general pathology) b. The bridge between basic biological sciences and the practice of medicine i. Translates basic science for medical use c. Study of changes in structure and function that are produced either by injury, in the broadest sense, or by inborn errors d. Reactions of cells and tissues are finite – identical structural features may be found in both normal and disease states; altered structure alone may be unreliable in presence of disease e. Diagnosis - the process of determining by examination the nature and circumstances of a diseased condition f. Prognosis - a forecasting of the probable course and outcome of a disease, especially of the chances of recovery g. Theranosis – choosing the right therapy for the disease II. Disease a. Condition in which the normal function of some part of organ of the body is disturbed OR b. Does not exist except as reaction to injury i. Definitions are mutually exclusive to one another ii. Visible outcome from injury iii. Study in structure and function iv. Need to know what is normal to find the abnormal c. Need to focus on type of injury, type of reaction, and the location of injury III. Cells a. Can have two abnormalities: change in structure, change in function i. When cells change, they are responding to environment; we need to know what they are doing ii. No absolutes, always variation iii. Change alone not always indication of injury, and injury may not cause change b. Ultimate change = cell death (cell death can be normal – cells die all the time; inflammation can be normal) recognize normal vs. abnormal cell death (normal or pathologic?) c. Disease – disturbance of normal; reaction to injury (usually); responses can be varied, which impacts outcome (ex. Sometimes look serious but isn’t) d. Steps to help Prognosis: i. Look at injury – impact differs due to cause of the injury ii. Look at location – how to treat, intervention IV. Injury a. Structural change lesion b. Alteration of function – the ultimate alteration is loss of function i. There are degrees of loss or impairment – look at outcome (ex. Finger vs. limb) c. Degree of change does not equate with outcome i. Disordered function does not always lead to disordered structure ii. Ex. Vibrio Cholera no damage, no entry of gut wall – no structural change, but severe functional change 1. toxin stimulates adenylate cyclase, which results in severe functional change (fluid gets put into digestive tract; diarrhea, ultimately dehydration) iii. Ex. Benign neoplasm large structural change, little functional change
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1. people can die due to it taking up too much space, though d. changes are finite (can be measured) e. can be increase or decrease, loss or gain of function (gained function due to injury; cells jump into action) f. Changes in Genetics of the Cell i. May get new phenotype (observable) – very difficult to change genotype
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Pathology1 - I. Pathology a. Study of functional and...

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