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drugs - History of Drug Abuse History of Drug Abuse Drug...

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1 History of Drug Abuse History of Drug Abuse • Drug abuse largely man-made, corporate-developed problem (what does this mean?) Theories of addiction heavily influenced by drugs abused at the time & by public policy toward those drugs. The legal & social status of a drug does not always relate to its addictive potential: Many illegal drugs do not produce addiction (e.g., LSD). • Highly social and political field, not just scientific
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2 History of Drug Abuse in America •Aside from alcohol & nicotine use, drug addiction emerged in the US with the use of morphine (from opium poppy) in Civil War soldiers (“Soldier’s disease”) As the problems associated with morphine became obvious, other drugs replaced it. Many drugs of abuse originated in plants (e.g., nicotine, cocaine, opium), most others were made by drug companies Until 1906 all drugs were legal -- most remained legal for many years. History of Drug Abuse in the US Opium is extracted from the unripe seed capsule of the Poppy plant: Papaver somniferum - mentioned in the Iliad and Odyssey use documented in Egyptian culture. Grows wild in Asia, range from Greece to China - most legal production is in India and Turkey Opium contains: morphine, codeine, noscapine (narcotin), papaverine, narceine, thebain, etc.
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3 Widespread use of morphine in US (late 1800’s) This bottle of Stickney and Poor's paregoric was distributed much like the spices for which the company was better known. It is a mixture of opium & alcohol used for pain. At 46% alcohol, this product is 92 proof. Morphine as a “soothing syrup” (late 1800’s) Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup was an indispensable aid to mothers & child- care workers. Containing one grain (65 mg) of morphine per fluid ounce, it effectively quieted restless infants & small children. It probably also helped mothers relax after a hard day's work. The company used various media to promote their product, including recipe books, calendars, & trade cards such as the one shown here from 1887 (A calendar is on the reverse side.).
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4 Government complicity Products containing opium & other narcotics were required to pay a special tax on each bottle of "medicine" and to signify that the tax was paid by sealing the unopened bottle with a tax stamp. Alcoholic beverages & tobacco products paid the same tax. Heroin advertisement, 1897 Bayer created aspirin from salicylic acid; he added two acetyl groups and got rid of much of the stomach problems. Tried the same thing for morphine = (diacetylmorphine) called it heroin & claimed it wouldn’t be habit- forming.
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5 Heroin: a registered trademark of the Bayer pharmaceutical products In the following years, Heroin was a drug marketed by Bayer as a cough syrup without the nasty side effects of morphine. Cocaine advertisement Paperweight advertisement for Boehringer & Soehne,"largest makers in the world of quinine and cocaine." •This manufacturer was proud of its leading position in the world's cocaine market.
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6 Cocaine advertisement Cocaine toothache drops were popular with children & with their parents. Not only would the medicine numb the pain, but it could also put the user in a "better" mood.
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