6 - Chapter 6. THE VISCERAL ORGANS The visceral organs are...

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Chapter 6. THE V ISCERAL ORGANS The visceral organs are described here only briefly to indicate their regional organization. More information will be provided in later chapters, when structure and function are discussed in greater detail. It is convenient to consider these internal organs as making up two groups (Figure 6- 1): thoracic viscera abdominal viscera. For the present purposes, it will suffice to describe the viscera from a ventral approach, but to aid in orientation, some diagrams are provided that show lateral constructs and, on occasion, transverse sections of the body. The descriptions used here apply to mature ruminant animals. The ventral surface of the body wall, immediately beneath the skin and any subcutaneous adipose tissue, consists of the ventral face of the sternum extending caudad to the xiphoid cartilage. Continuing caudally, a tough ligamentous band, the linea alba , provides the ventral fusion, or aponeurosis, of the abdominal wall (shown for the horse earlier in Figure 2-13). The linea alba extends caudad to the pelvic region. For this introduction the pelvic viscera such as the bladder, uterus, and cervix in females will be included in the abdominal group. Figure 6-1 . The thoracic and abdominal cavities . Note the relative location and dimensions of the visceral compartments. The diaphragm is shown with its cranial limit (solid line) fanning out to its peripheral limit (dotted line). The abdominal cavity extends father forward
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A. Thoracic viscera If the sternum is split lengthwise and the ribs are retracted laterally to expose the thoracic cavity , the latter appears to be roughly triangular with a caudal base formed by the diaphragm . The cavity is shallower cranially and deeper caudally. The diaphragm is the caudal limit to the thoracic cavity. It is a broad, flat or cranially domed muscle that is part of the respiratory apparatus in mammals. It attaches laterally to the rear of the rib cage and lies obliquely backward to the dorsum, at the junction of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral regions.
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2009 for the course ANSCI 1110 taught by Professor Brucecurrie during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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6 - Chapter 6. THE VISCERAL ORGANS The visceral organs are...

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