Test 3- COMD2050 Notes

Test 3- COMD2050 Notes - Semantics Semantics the study of...

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try, identifying the meaning and how to pronounce it. The phonetic info is sent via the arcuate fasciculus to Broca’s area which determines what combina Semantics Semantics: the study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences Problem with these perfectly formed sentences: they don’t make sense. What makes these sentences strange are the requirements of the verb He tried to assassinate the rosebush. The hamburger ate the man. o Hamburger is not an agent because its not animate o The man isn’t a theme, because it is animate My cat studied linguistics. Semantic Roles: all verbs have Semantic Roles Subject: o Agent: initiates the action; intends the action; controls the action. Must be animate (be able to do things). Will be a person or possibly an animal. o Experiencer: Role in the situation is usually characterized primarily by thoughts, feelings or perceptions.” Believe, wonders, thinks.” Not a physical action, but something that you do. Direct Object: o Patient : affected undergoer of an action; undergoes material change as a result of the action. A person or an animal. The thing to which something is done. o Theme : entity moved or acted upon in an action, but without substantial change in itself. Non-animate which means it’s a thing. Indirect objects: o Instruments: thing used by an agent to do an action. Usually in prepositional phrases that begin with “with.” I hit john with the bat . o Goal : endpoint of a trajectory (path) through which an entity moves. I sent a letter to Joe . Often occur in prepositional phrases that begin with “to.” o Source : opposite of Goal. Beginning point of a trajectory through which an entity moves; usually occur in prepositional phrases that begin with “from.” Container out of which an entity moves o Benefactive : The entity that benefits from an action. I give you money. Has to be good. o Location : Place at which an action occurs. Occur in prepositional phrases that begin with “at.” o Time : Time at which an action occurs or state of affair holds. Also “at.” Examples The boy kicked the ball into a goal. The boy kicked Billy. o Nouns: Boy: agent, Billy: patient, Ball: theme because it’s a thing, Goal: goal “Ask” o I asked my mom for money. o I: agent o Mom: patient o Money:??? Have to re-word the sentence. “Wash” has agent and theme o I washed my clothes. o I: agent o Clothes: theme “Donate” someone has to donate something to someone o She donated money to the charity o She: agent Money: theme Charity: benefactor- because a donation is GOOD “Believe” o I believe that children are the future. o I: experience That children are the future: a theme “Cut” o Semantic Roles for cut: agent, theme, instrument o I cut my finger with a knife.
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  • Spring '08
  • Collins
  • prepositional phrases, semantic roles, gradable antonyms, nongradable antonyms, accurate phonological outline

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