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Skeletal System

Skeletal System - Skeletal System Assigned Readings Chapter...

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Skeletal System Assigned Readings: Chapter 6 (pp. 156-175, skipping section on bone repair) Lecture Outline I. Skeletal Cartilages A. Basic Structure, Types, and Locations – act as calcium deposits, body can take calcium away from bones if there isn’t enough, can also deposit calcium there, blood cells are formed in bone marrow 1. cartilage surrounded by dense irregular connective tissue: perichondrium 2. Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant skeletal cartilage: articular, costal, respiratory, nasal cartilages 3. Elastic cartilages more flexible than hyaline; located in the external ear 4. Fibrocartilage located in areas that withstand pressure or stretch; intervertebral discs B. Growth of Cartilage 1. Appositional growth: production of cartilage matrix on the outside of the tissue 2. Interstitial growth: expansion from within the cartilage due to division inner chondrocytes II. Classification of Bones A. The Axial skeleton and the Appendicular skeleton B. Shape 1. Long bones - longer than they are wide 2. Short bones- cube shaped (wrist) 3. Flat bones – roof of skull 4. Irregular bones – vertebrae sesamoid bones – patella (kneecap), form within tendons, develop within 3-5 years of age, not born with them sutural bones – mistakes, form where flat bones come together not perfectly
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III. Functions of Bones A. Support the body, protect vital organs, allow movement, store minerals such as calcium and phosphate, and house hematopoietic tissue IV. Bone Structure A. Gross Anatomy diaphysis is the shaft of a long bone, ends are called epiphysis , where the 2 come together is the epiphyseal line , during development they are made of cartilage to expand and allow for growth, between 18-22 those plates close and are replaced by bone 1. Bone markings: projections, depressions, and openings a. Sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment b. Openings for the passage of blood vessels and nerves 2. Bone Textures a. Compact bone: dense outer layer – outside regions of the bone, stronger but heavier than spongy bone b. Spongy bone: internal made of trabeculae and spaces – little beams and structures that provide
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