Nervous System Fundamentals

Nervous System Fundamentals - Fundamentals of the Nervous...

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Fundamentals of the Nervous System Assigned Reading: Chapter 11 pp. 347-372 Lecture Outline I. Organization of the Nervous System A. Central nervous system (CNS) – brain and spinal chord, interpret information B. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – bring in and send out information 1. Sensory/afferent division - 2. Motor/efferent, division – sends commands from CNS to effectors (muscles glands ect) Efferent = motor, Afferent = sensory a. Somatic nervous system – skeletal muscle, skin b. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) – visceral (autonomic Nervous system) – internal organs II. Histology of Nervous Tissue A. Neuroglia/glial cells: supportive network – structural and adhesive elements of nervous system made of connective tissue 1. Astrocytes: CNS cells that regulate the chemical environment – hold neurons together, looks like a star, maintain synapse distance, keeps proper ion balance around cells 2. Microglia: CNS cells that act as immune system of the nervous system – very small cells, act as phagocytes that engulf cellular debis or pathogens, since CNS does not have a normal immune system the microglia fulfill that role 3. Ependymal cells: CNS cells that line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord – epithelial cell that lines the fluid filled cavities of the brain and spinal column, interfaces between the brain or spinal tissue and the fluid cavity, have a lot of cilia
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4. Oligodendrocytes: CNS cells that wrap around neuron fibers, forming myelin sheaths – small number of processes, has myelin sheath like Schwann cells, it surrounds axons to form myelin (electrical insulator to speed electrical conduction) 5. Satellite cells: PNS cells that surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia – cover cell body of neuron, look like a hat 6. Schwann cells: PNS cells that surround nerve fibers, forming the myelin sheath – like oligodendrocytes but in PNS, makes a bead like myelin sheath, the myelin sheath is actually a Schwann cell and coils itself several times around the axon. Neurilemma is portion that is exposed to outside B. Neuron 1. Characteristics:
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Nervous System Fundamentals - Fundamentals of the Nervous...

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