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Test 2- CHAPTER 22 Kingdom Animalia

Test 2- CHAPTER 22 Kingdom Animalia - NOTES FOR BIOLOGY...

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NOTES FOR BIOLOGY 1002 SECTIONS 001 and 002 Outline 2A CHAPTER 22 Animal Diversity I: Invertebrates The main distinguishing features of the Kingdom Animalia are -Eukaryotic -Multicellular -Heterotrophic - Ingestive method of digestion -Sexual reproduction - No cell wall -Rapid response to stimuli (nerves and muscles) -Life cycle with embryonic development -Aerobic: oxygen-requiring In addition to these characteristics, as animals evolved from the animal-like protists, they developed more complex and organized bodies. Some of these increases in complexity and organization are: -cellular specialization: about having cells adopt specific activities that they are good at; the cells have evolved to be good at certain activities. Some cells are doing 1 set of activities, others are doing another, and because they’re working on one unit, it works together? -body plan: vertebrate vs. ivertebrate - cephalization : having a head -body cavity - segmentation -digestive system Cephalization is the concentration of nervous tissue (including a “brain” and sensory organs) into a defined region (head) of the body. Segmentation is a body design in which similar repeating units are present. These and other characteristics are used to define the groups within the Kingdom Animalia. ( See table 22-1 ).
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Cellular specialization leads to the development of tissues , which then can lead to the combination of tissues into an organ . Organs may then become arranged into organ systems . Tissues are specialized cells with a common structure and function that are grouped together and acting together as a union Organs are centers of bodily function, which are usually made up of different Tissues. Organ systems are groups of two or more organs that function together to perform a common task (e.g., digestion, gas exchange, reproduction) The presence or absence of tissues in an organism defines the first separation of a group from the rest of the animals. Sponges - Phylum Porifera (see fig 22-5) He circled epithelial cell, spicules Characteristic of sponges - Sessile - non-moving -Filter feeders: suck in water and filter it out -May reproduce sexually or asexually by budding or fragmentation -Most species have an asymmetric body plan designed for water filtration - Lack tissue structure but have specialized cells (see fig 22-4) - asymmetry Three types of specialized cells are found in the sponge phylum Epithelial cells - outer covering layer (like a skin) Make up and regulate the pores Collar cells - Inner layer which pumps water through the sponge using flagella and filters out the food Amoeboid cells - mobile cells between the two layers that ingest the collected food -Responsible for reproduction -Secretion of skeletal structure of spicules . The lack of tissues in sponges also result in the asymmetric body plan . All other animal phyla have both defined tissues and body plan or symmetry .
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