chapter 34 -- antimicrobial chemotherapy

chapter 34 -- antimicrobial chemotherapy - Chapter 34...

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Chapter 34: Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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Sources of Antibiotics Bacteria Streptomyces: Amphotericin B, Neomycin Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin Rifampin, Streptomycin Tetracycline, and Vancomycin Micromonospora : Gentamycin Bacillus: Bacitracin and Polymyxin Fungus Penicillium: Penicillin and Griseofulvin Cephalosporium : Cephalosporins DON’T HAVE TO MEMORIZE THE SPECIFICS…just know that they can come from either bacteria or fungus
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Before Antibiotics ¼ the population of Europe died from Black Plague Scarlet fever, typhoid fever, diphtheria, cholera, whooping cough, & pneumonia were undeniable facts of life 1 in 3 children died before age 6 and the average life expectancy was 40 years In World War I and World War II more people died from typhus than from combat
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In the Era of Antibiotics Black Plague, typhus and most other bacterial diseases are easily treated and contained Average life expectancies increased to about 70 An attitude that “antibiotics are ‘magic bullets’ that will cure all of our diseases” was adopted Currently, we’re dealing with the problem of antibiotic resistance
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The Search for Antimicrobials Paul Erlich: German physician systematically searched for a way to cure syphilis Noticed infected tissue specimens were not stained but that bacteria were Reasoned that the dye had some affinity for bacteria specifically and that if the dye was toxic, it would harm bacteria, but not host Identified the drug Salvarsan (arsenic derivative)
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The Search for Antimicrobials Gerhard Domagk Worked for Bayer and screened a great number of chemicals looking for antimicrobial agents Looked at effects of chemical directly on bacteria, as well as the effects of the chemical on bacteria in an active host (mouse) infection Found that some chemicals were ineffective when applied directly to bacterial cultures, but were greatly effective as antimicrobial agents in the infected mouse Reasoned that drugs could be biologically modified by host and the chemical change caused the increased antimicrobial action Found that Prontosil was broken down in the body to yield a chemical called sulfanilamide:
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