chapters 30 and 31 - Chapters 30 & 31: Normal Flora of...

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Chapters 30 & 31: Normal Flora of the Human Body and Nonspecific Immunity
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Do you have to know all the species of normal flora for every region? NO! Instead, be able to explain how each of the areas contributes to limiting the types of bacteria present (pH, oxygen availability, etc.) and which areas have no flora at all. There were also a few species that spent time talking about like the one which causes acne, and I could ask a question along that line.
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Mutualistic Antagonism Important contributions to non-specific immunity If non-harmful microbes are growing on a patch of skin, there is a competition between normal flora and a ‘would-be’ pathogen for space, nutrients, water, etc. Even if a pathogen were able to colonize a host, it will still have to continue this competition in order to establish a disease
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Normal Human Flora They are resident microorganisms found on and in the bodies of healthy individuals Normal flora have… a mutualistic relationship with their host an antagonistic relationship with ‘would-be’ pathogens The combination of these relationships is referred to as mutualistic antagonism
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Establishment of Normal Flora A fetus develops in uterus in environment that is normally sterile Colonization begins at birth, with contact with foods, other people (hands/skin), air, linens, etc. “You are what you eat”- (at least your normal flora is) Intestinal flora varies depending on whether nursed ( Bifidobacterium sp. predominates) or bottle-fed ( Lactobacillus sp. is dominant) Changes again when teeth appear and switch to solid foods Development continues and changes with age, stress, diet and antibiotic therapy
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Normal Flora of the Skin Transient population occur on the surface Some areas very moist, but the vast majority of surface is very dry Genera of normal flora varies depending on specific area examined Slightly acidic pH environment Secretions of sweat and oil glands, as well as normal flora products cause acidic conditions Sebum is also antimicrobial to most microbes- the exception is Proprionibacterium sp. which grows well in oily substances and is associated with acne The major players on the skin Dry areas of skin- Staphylococcus sp. Moist areas of skin: Gram negative rods Oil glands: Proprionibacterium sp. Scalp: Pityrosporium sp. (yeasts)
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Abundant and diverse; microbes must be able to resist mechanical removal Flushed with ingestion of food and liquids to stomach Continuous shedding of squamous epithelial cells also removes bacteria Attachment by glycocalyx forms to enamel on teeth Major players in the oral cavity: Streptococcus sp. Neisseria
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This note was uploaded on 03/24/2009 for the course MIBO 3500 taught by Professor Dustman during the Fall '09 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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chapters 30 and 31 - Chapters 30 & 31: Normal Flora of...

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