Ethane_cycloalkanes - Ethane propane butane and...

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1 Ethane, propane, butane and cycloalkanes Bond Rotation in Ethane (note Newman projections) Torsional strain Torsional strain: electron clouds avoid each other (or in a recent paper, there is stabilizing interaction between, you guessed it, a C- H bonding orbital on one carbon with an antibonding orbital on an adjacent carbon). Interactions with one methyl:propane Butane and its energy profile (along the 2-3 bond). How Gauche!
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2 Steric Strain Steric strain is a repulsive interaction when atoms must come closer than their atomic radii allow. Yes, two objects cannot occupy the same space. Butane now has two different staggered and eclipsed conformations (compared to ethane or propane) Cycloalkanes: cyclopropane Strain is everywhere: angle strain Angle strain: the strain caused by deviations from 109.5º. Baeyer (Adolf von; 1835-1917) had the following notion about bond angle and rings: Cyclopropane is flat and cyclobutane is bent Cyclopropane has 6 eclipsing interactions and all that angle strain.
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