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COMM201StudyGuideFall08

COMM201StudyGuideFall08 - OriginsofRhetoric...

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Origins of Rhetoric - Heuristic function: ability to gain new knowledge - Eristic function: the power of words to engage and audience - Protreptic function: the power of words to direct human thought The Sophists -Pragmatic teachers, not systematic philosophers - Nomos : law as based in agreement or convention - Kairos : circumstances surrounding argument - Dialectic : inventing both sides of an argument - Endoxa : use of pre-established facts as the proposition grounding the teaching - Epideixis - the process of memorizing and recreating famous speeches Arete p -Greek word for "virtue" -Could not stand on its own, applied to an ergon (work) -Each ergon carries its own arete Gorgias -Rhetoric was an ornamentation of words as words carry the power to persuade - Antithesis : presenting an opposition of ideas in a sentence or paragraph -Chiasmic Structure : reversing elements in parallel clauses in a statement (i.e. praise the blameworthy and blame the praiseworthy) -"Encomium of Helen": gave an argument defending Helen, drawing a connection between love and effective rhetoric Isocrates - Attic Orators : employed a plain style emphasizing brevity and clarity - Asiatic Orators : employed a flowery verbose style - Thematic Rhetoric : rhetoric should deal with important issues in important ways - Pragmatic Rhetoric : rhetoric should have a positive impact on polis (civic life) -Asserted that we cannot know truth, we can only make "wise judgements" based in deliberation -The problem with virtue resides in the audience and how they differentiate between virtue and flattery Plato -Truth is self-evident, so one that professes truth does not need rhetoric -Rhetoric as the sophists use it is used to cover up lies -Rhetoric tends to make the worse appear the better (Gorgias) -Rhetoric is a knack for producing gratification and pleasure (Polus) -Good does not equal power, and bad does not equal pain (Callicles) Plato's Phaedrus -Phaedrus was an easily distracted and controlled person who rarely saw beyond his immediate physical circumstances
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-Meant to represent the people of Athens -Lysias argued to Phaedrus that the best lover was a non-lover, in a poor manner -Socrates responds by giving a valid argument on why non-lovers are preferable -Recognizes that it is impossible to validly communicate an argument if the principles surrounding it are flawed -He then gives a second speech on love, stating that a true lover lives for their beloved -True communication and true love are similar in this respect -Plato compares the true speaker to a doctor, in that a doctor attempts to heal the body while a speaker speaks to and attempts to heal the soul -In order to be an adequate speaker one must be an adequate philosopher and have general knowledge about the subject. Aristotle -Studying and comparing objects allow us to gain an understanding of the forms (Truth) -God is the force behind all that is visible -Intuition, scientific, general, and rhetorical were all types of knowledge -Rhetoric leads us to the best knowledge when there is no universal certainty
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