MIDTERM NOTES - THE ENLIGHTENMENT VOLTAIRE'S POLITICS...

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THE ENLIGHTENMENT: VOLTAIRE’S POLITICS Enlightenment—intellectual independence Immanuel Kant—Dare to know! Voltaire’s Politics: ~utopian ideas ~tried to break the class barriers by challenging the nobility ~admired England because differences in rank were based only on merit and even the king had to respect the division of power ~against censorship (symbol of political abuse) - Letter de cachet ~against privileges ~against war -wrote Candide which described the horrors of war ~against the criminal justice system in France -upset by the execution of Jean Calas and the quartering of Damiens -led a public campaign against torture and the public rallied behind him -1780: a royal declaration was passed abolishing all forms of torture ~“We must cultivate our garden.” THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: THE DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF MAN Industrial Revolution and French Revolution—twins engines for modernity FREEDOM (LIBERTY), EQUALITY, FRATERNITY ~freedom -came from feudal society, the struggle between noblemen and the king -John Locke: men are born free into a state of nature, where everybody is entitled to private property *the people have the power to legislate in order to resolve conflicts *freedom from authority and freedom to participate *people are free to conduct their business in the private realm *the foundation of freedom is private property -Jean Jacques Rousseau: freedom an only be achieved when people identify with the “general will” *what is good for the human community is also good for the human individual *men are forced to be free by the whole body *popular sovereignty—the people are the sovereign ~equality -until the 18 th century, society was divided into a class hierarchy of unequal orders -inequity was natural, legitimate, and inevitable -economic change: *social mobility as a result of decreasing poverty *with an acquired economic position comes the demand for political influence
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-John Locke: everyone is born equal -Jean Jacques Rousseau: everyone has an equal stake in society and there is no private property DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN ~contained both Locke’s and Rousseau’s ideas ~universal, abstract, and applicable to all men and women all over the world ~ “All citizens, being equal in its eyes, are equally admissible to all honors, positions, and employment, according to their capabilities, and without other distinctions than those of their virtues and talents.” DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE FEMALE CITIZEN ~Olympe de Gouges *her declaration was rejected *she was executed by the guillotine ~led to the slave rebellion in Haiti *the Republic of Haiti was established under Toussaint L’Ouverture *became a French colony when the rebellion was suppressed EUROPE IN THE 18 TH CENTURY ~constant warfare *army grew from 50,000 to 400,000 *growing expenses were met by taxation and borrowing *tax burden was on the Third Estate (First Estate—clergy, Second Estate—nobility, Third Estate—everyone else) ~taxes and the venality of offices were sources of antagonism
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