Unformatted text preview: Anthropology? Anthropology?
Exoticism Etymology: The word "anthropology" is formed by combining two Greek words "anthropos" ("human") and "logia" ("study"). Aristotle – Anthropologos; the discourse and study of man Anthropology is the holistic study Anthropology holistic of humankind.
Anthropology studies all aspects of human life in all geographic regions of all time periods, both past and present. Holistic Holistic
Interdisciplinary Interrelations of economics, politics, history, culture, language, social structure, psychology, physiology… • Both Science (methodological) and Humanities (reflective) • • Four Field Approach Four Physical/Biological Anthropology Archaeology Linguistic anthropology SocioCultural Anthropology Biological, or physical, anthropology anthropology • • • • • • Investigates human biological diversity across time and space.
Paleoanthropology Human genetics. Human growth and development. Human biological plasticity Primatology Biological anthropology is multidisciplinary as it draws on biology, ecology, zoology, geology, anatomy, physiology, medicine, public health, osteology, and archaeology. Archaeological anthropology reconstructs, describes, and interprets past human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains. Linguistic anthropology the study of language in its social and cultural context across space and time. Cultural anthropology Ethnography Ethnology • ethnos meaning "habit, custom, convention” or “people” • Graphein = writing • “logy” = study of Applied Anthropology. Theoretical/academic anthropology conducted for the purposes of producing knowledge that may be used by others Applied anthropology is the application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, or techniques to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems. 18 century 18
th Anthropology referred to the physiological and psychological studies of human variation – “Physical Anthropology” “folklore” (19th century) studied the “lore” or customs, traditions of human groups – “cultures” Early Anthropology Concerned with documenting a taxonomy of human groups
• “primitivesavagebarbariancivilized” • Early “evolutionary” theories of unilinear history put these classifications into temporal relation as a hierarchical scale of human “progress” Contemporary Anthropology Contemporary Ethnocentrism – the practice of judging the traditions and customs of other cultures from the perspective that ones own culture is superior – Cultural Relativism Cultural The principle that beliefs, values and systems of symbolic meanings must be understood within the CONTEXT of a particular cultural history – Franz Boaz “Eugenics” & critical relativism Patterns of Variation & Change Patterns Variation across time & space • TIME Diachronic research; Historical research • Space Synchronic research; comparing information collected from human societies existing at roughly the same time • Patterns & Relationships Cross-Cultural, Comparative Perspective Perspective Generalizations through comparative perspective rather than ethnocentric opinion. Adaptation
• Adaptation is the process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses. Four types of human adaptation • • • • Cultural (technological) adaptation. Genetic adaptation (mutation, variation). Longterm physiological or developmental adaptation. Immediate physiological adaptation. Perspicacity (“Ms B”). To “step outside yourself and see the world from another point of view” ...
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- Spring '07
- Anthropology, Anthropology Anthropology, Anthropology Archaeology Linguistic, anthropology SocioCultural Anthropology