9.Homo.Brains.culture. - 4 to 2.5 million years ago...

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The Emergence of Homo Increasing brain size Neoteny Foraging, Scavenging & Hunting Cultural Adaptation Emergence from Africa
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Tools Aid Complex Foraging Aids Exploitation of More Varieties of Foods (1) Before tools, collected fruits and leaves. (1) Simple tools aid the extraction nuts, tubers, termites, honey, and processing of toxic plants. (1) Stone tools allow chopping and disarticulation of large game.
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Homo habilis “handy man” 2.5 to 1.8 million years ago Oldowan Tool Kit (Paleolithic Begins)
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Analogy & “Man the Hunter” Mbuti Hunter Ache Hunter Kung Hunter
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Not a Human Universal Agta woman hunting “Broads with Rods”
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Hadza woman & digging stick Foraging requires tools Ache Mother & Weaving technologies Kung woman processing nuts
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Organic technology Kung family camp Hadza women pounding Mongongo Nuts Kung drinking “sponge”
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The first teacher
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“Lucy” Australopithecus afarensis
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Unformatted text preview: 4 to 2.5 million years ago Small-Brained Fully Bipedal Human and Ape Pelves Infant skull size & Birth Canal Altricial & Precocial patterns of brain growth Increasing Cranial Capacity Increasing Cranial Capacity Australopithecus afarensis (EQ 41%) Australopithecus africanus ( EQ 45%) Neanderthal (EQ 100%) Homo habilis (EQ 53%) Homo erectus (EQ 72%) EQ = Encephalization Quotient as percentage of modern human. “Lucy” Australopithecus afarensis 4 to 2.5 million years ago Small-Brained Fully Bipedal ~2.5 to 1.7 million years ago Oldowan Tools Taphonomy Study of marks left by teeth and stone tools on bones. Olduvai bones have numerous marks from stone tools. Scavenging Faunal Remains at Olduvai indicates that Homo habilis mostly scavenged and hunted swine and bovines. Protein intake & Bigger Brains Sharing & Social Reciprocity...
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  • Spring '07
  • Scarre
  • Homo Habilis, homo erectus, Australopithecus, Australopithecus afarensis, cranial capacity, Australopithecus africanus

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