Archaeology is the scientific study & reconstruction of past cultures and the way people lived based on the things they left behind. artifacts , objects made, used, or changed by humans. Feature; survey; site; Excavation; Cultural Resource Management; Grid system; context; diffusion; independent invention History of North American Archaeology 1. Period I: Incidental Discovery and Speculation: 1492-1840 Thomas Jefferson's Mound excavations - three respects: conducted excavation, Systematic & record keeping, based on scientific principles: hypothesis, testing, and inference. 2. Period II: Systematic Survey and synthesis: 1840-1920 Cyrus Thomas shattered the Mound Builder myth Formulation of culture areas: cultural regions based on the traits of artifactual remains Professionalization Salvage archaeology Integration of archaeology with ethnology, linguistics, and physical anthropology 3. Period III: Taxonomies, and Chronologies: 1920-1960 New Deal projects Historical and chronological focus
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