Comm Outline Chapter 3

Comm Outline Chapter 3 - Chapter 3: The Verbal Message I....

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Chapter 3: The Verbal Message I. Words and Meaning 1. Symbols and Referents symbol something used for or regarded as representing something else referent the object for which the word stands no real association exists between a word we agree to call something and its referent a word is merely a verbal symbol of the object it represents concrete words were used to define and give meaning to abstract words in the dictionary concrete words are those that refer to elements that “can be seen, felt, touched” concrete = tangible human beings assign meanings to words 2. Denotation and Connotation Denotation the primary association a word has for most members of a give linguistic community Connotation other secondary associations a words has for oone or more members of that community Denotation = dictionary meaning A. Negative-Positive Connotation o Senior citizen vs. elderly o The words used by individuals, authors, and speakers can be analyzed to identify emotions or opinions o Words with negative or positive connotations are often intended to sway the audience to particular point of view o In an experiment, subjects were more physiologically aroused by the personal words than by either the good or the aversive words B. The Semantic Differential o Semantic differential can test a person’s reactions to any concept or term Seven-interval scale with limits defined by sets of bipolar adjectives Concerned wit feelings (connotation) rather than a description (denotation) o Judgments have three major dimensions: evaluation, potency, and activity o Ex: commitment is good or bad and cruel or kind (evaluation) o Powerful or weak and hot or cold (potency) o active or passive (activity)
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C. Culture and Connotation o Osgood argues that evaluation, potency, and activity are universal dimensions of effect o Found definite cultural variations, but many tested similarly o Ex: people among various cultures voted Monday as the worst day of the week, with momentum on Friday, and peak on Sunday 3. Private and Shared Meanings A. Private Meaning o We can all use language and assign meanings to words and create own private language o Schizophrenics often utilize private language without knowing it calling trees “reds” or “cows”, etc. o Private language the words of this language are to refer to what can be known only to the speaker; to his immediate, private, sensations. So another cannot understand the language. B. Shared Meaning o Shared meaning some correspondence between the message as perceived by the sender and receiver o essential in building culture within organizations o organizations have their own terminology, industry vocabulary, their own acronyms, and their own definitions within the environment C. Overlapping Codes and Code switching o In intercultural communication, the sender and receiver often have overlapping codes o Overlapping codes codes which prove an area of
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Comm Outline Chapter 3 - Chapter 3: The Verbal Message I....

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