Bio Unit 2 Notes - Bio Unit 2 Notes 1 2A Cartilage and Bone...

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Bio Unit 2 Notes 1. 2A Cartilage and Bone a. Two types of growth for cartilage i. Interstitial and appositional b. Bone 2. Intro to skeletal system a. Organ system with tissues that grow and change throughout life i. Bones ii. Cartilage iii. Ligaments-bone to bone iv. Tendons-muscle to bone b. Cartilage i. Not as strong as bone, more flexible/resilient ii. Avascular-not blood cells c. Cells i. Chondroplasty-produce extracellular matrix ii. Chondrocytes-mature chondroblasts surrounded by secreted matrix d. Distribution of cartilage in adult body i. Hyaline-level of joint, articular cartilages are hyaline ii. Fibrocartilage-pads where bones rub together iii. Elastic-found in the ear e. Function of Cartilage i. supports soft tissue 1. airways in respiratory and auricle in ear ii. articulations 1. smooth surfaces where bones meet iii. precursor model for bone growth 1. hyaline 2. fetus at 12 weeks-fetal skull, will see a lot of cartilage serving as model for eventual skeleton-provides underlying structure f. growth of cartilage i. two patterns 1. interstitial-from inside of cartilage 2. appositional-alone outside edge of existing cartilage a. not development, but growth of existing ii. interstitial 1. mitosis of chondrocytes in lacunae a. forms two chondrocytes per lacuna b. each synthesize and secrete new matrix c. new matrix separates the cells 2. result: a. larger piece of cartilage
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b. newest cartilage internal to tissue iii. appositional 1. mitosis of stem cells in perichondrium (around cartilage) a. adds chondroblasts to periphery b. produces matrix, becomes chondrocytes c. forming new lacunae d. adding to existing matrix 2. result: g. Bones i. Living organs composed of several tissues 1. Primarily osseous CT (bone tissue) 2. Extracellular matrix is rigid and sturdy 3. Strengthened by calcification ii. Functions 1. Support 2. Protection 3. Movement 4. Hemopoisesis or hematopoiesis-blood cell production 5. Storage of energy (yellow bone marrow) 6. Storage of minerals iii. Types of bones 1. Long a. Greater in length then width 2. Short a. Nearly equal length and width 3. Flat a. Found in skull 4. Irregular a. Sesamoid iv. Long bone anatomy 1. Diaphysis
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a. Elongated, usually cyndrical, shaft 2. Epiphyses a. Knobby, enlarged regions at ends b. Strengthen joints c. Attachments sites for ligaments and tendons d. Metaphysis i. Between D and E ii. Contains epiphyseal plate (growth plate) iii. Epiphyseal line in adults e. Articular cartilage i. Thin layer of hyaline on epiphyses ii. Reduces friction between articulating bones f. Medullary cavity i. Cyndrical space in diaphysis ii. Contains yellow bone marrow in adults and red marrow in children iii. Infant all red, child some yellow, around 25 is when yellow marrow is prominent 3. Bone coverings a. Periosteum i. Dense irregular CT (outer fibrous layer and inner cellular) ii. Covers external surfaces of bones, does not cover articular cartilages iii. Acts as anchor for blood vessels and nerves vis perforating fibers embedded in bone iv.
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