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Nutrition unit 2 notes

Nutrition unit 2 notes - Nutrition unit 2 notes 1 Lipids...

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Nutrition unit 2 notes 1. Lipids and Heart Disease-intro video a. Lipids are molecules that don’t dissolve in water i. Very broad category but primarily: 1. Fats and sterols 2. Most are fats 95% ii. Terms related: 1. Triglycerides 2. Fatty acids 3. Saturated 4. Polyunsaturated 5. Monounsaturated 6. Omega-3 7. Trans-fat iii. Must look at chemical structure to understand 1. How do the influence the fat in food in our body? 2. The type of fat makes it solid or liquid iv. With respect to fat-it is you are what you eat, but not the way we think 1. E.g. Blood lipids change in response to what we eat v. Compounds are called lipoproteins-the amounts of these in our body will raise or lower our risk for heart disease b. Categorize fats c. Digestion and absorption on lipids d. How they impact 2. Overview of major lipid classification: triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols a. Tri’s i. Three fatty acids linked by glycerol ii. They are the most abundant lipid in food and human body iii. More commonly known at fats and oils iv. Chemical: composed of 3-carbon glycerol backbone with three fatty acids extending out from each of the carbons of glycerol. v. Make up 95% vi. Fatty acidsa are usually a part of tri’s 1. Both are composed of three atoms, carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) a. More carbond and hydrogen than oxygen, which allows them to supply more energy than carbs. b. Phospholipids i. Are synthesized in our bodies and are important components of cell membranes. 1. Like tri’s but a phosphorylated alcohol replaces one fatty acid chain a. Allows for the molecule to be partially water insoluble and polar/water soluble
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2. Can act as emulsifiers (help fat soluble and water soluble compounds mix) a. Naturally arrange themselves into lipid bilayers c. Sterols i. Found in plants and animals 1. Cholesterol is the most known, it is only in animals 2. Need cholesterol and make it in the liver ii. Sterols form important body compounds 1. Bile acids 2. Sex hormones 3. Adrenal hormones 4. Vitamin D iii. Also obtain it from foods we eat 1. Eggs 2. Fish 3. Shellfish iv. Most people make more in their liver than they eat 1. Amount it makes it based on amount of saturated fat and trans fatty acid in one’s diet 2. Excess intake can lead to elevated blood cholesterol but a. Internal production linked to high saturated fat intake had larger influence. 3. Body conserves cholesterol by recycling back to liver, presence of soluble fiber inhibits absorption in the intestines. d. How fatty acids differ from one another i. Length of carbon change 2-24 1. Average is 18 3. Lipid Classification: fatty acid variations- lipids do not dissolve in water a. Defined as long chains of carbon (even number), linked to hydrogen with an acid at one end of the carbon chain. i. Fatty acids defer from one another: 1. Chain length a. In nature they can be found from 4 to 28 carbons long i. <6 carbons are short chain fatty acids, 8-12 is medium, 12-24 are long b. In body, they are usually 14-22 long with 18 being most abundant c. Chain length influences whether it will be solid at room temp i.
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