Bio 132 Exam 1 Objectives

Bio 132 Exam 1 Objectives - Bio 132 Learning Objectives 1.1...

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Bio 132 Learning Objectives 1.1 Distinguish between living and nonliving things by describing the features that characterize living organisms. A living organism can grow and develop, carry on self-regulated metabolism, respond to stimuli, and reproduce. Species evolve and adapt to their environment. All living organisms are composed of cells . Organisms grow by increasing the size and/or number of cells Metabolism includes all the chemical activities that take place in the organism. Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to maintain an appropriate, balanced internal environment. Organisms respond to stimuli , physical or chemical changes in their external or internal environment. Movement with cilia or flagella. Reproduction by asexual or sexual reproduction Populations evolve and adapt. Adaptations are traits that increase an organism’s ability to survive in its environment. 1.3 Summarize the importance of information transfer to living systems. Organisms transmit information chemically, electrically, and behaviorally. DNA, which makes up the genes , contains the instructions for the development of an organism and for carrying out life processes. DNA codes for proteins , which are important in determining the structure and function of cells/tissues. Information encoded in DNA is transmitted from one generation to the next. Hormones , chemical messengers that transmit messages from one part of an organism to another, are an important type of cell signaling . Many organisms use electrical signals to transmit information; most animals have nervous systems that transmit electrical impulses and release neurotransmitters . 2.1 Name some of the principal chemical elements in living things and give an important function of each . (Table 2-1) An element is a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by normal chemical reactions. About 96% of an organism’s mass consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (proteins and nucleic acids). 2.5 Distinguish among simplest, molecular, and structural chemical formulas. A chemical formula gives the types and relative numbers of atoms in a substance. A simplest formula gives the smallest whole-number ratio of the component atomes. A molecular formula gives the actual numbers of each type of atom in a molecule. A structural formula shows the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule.
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2.7 Distinguish among covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds. Compare them in terms of the mechanisms by which they form and their relative bond strength. Covalent bonds are strong, stable bonds formed when atoms share valence electrons. When formed, orbitals rearrange in a process known as orbital hybridization. Covalent bonds are nonpolar if the electrons are shared equally between the two atoms. Covalent bonds are polar if one atom is more electronegative (C,N,O,F). An
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 132 taught by Professor Lively during the Fall '07 term at Sewanee.

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Bio 132 Exam 1 Objectives - Bio 132 Learning Objectives 1.1...

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