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Unformatted text preview: An Int roduction to Animal Structure and Function The cells of most animals interact at three levels of organization: tissues, organs, and organ systems Outline: 1. Key concepts 2. Organization of the animal body 3. Tissue types 4. Organ systems 5. Bioenergetics of Animals 6. Homeostasis 7. Key Terms 8. Conclusions Key Concepts: 1. The cells of most animals interact at three levels of organization: tissues, organs, and organ systems 2. Four types of tissues are seen in most animals: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues 3. Each animal cell engages in metabolic activities. 4. Animals are heterotrophs that harvest chemical energy from the food they ingest. 5. Mechanisms of homeostasis moderate changes in the internal environment Organization of the animal body 1. Cells – basic structural and functional units. 2. Tissue – a group of cells, usually similar in both structure and function. They are bound together to carry out one or more specialized tasks. 3. Organ – a body part. Two or more tissue types that function together. 4. Organ systems – two or more organs that work to perform a common function. Hierarchy of Organization Chemical Level -> Atoms -> molecules -> cellular level (made of molecules) -> tissue level (consists of similar types of cells) -> organ level (made of different types of tissues) -> organ system level (different organs that work together closely) -> organismal level (many organ systems) Tissue types 1. Epithelial tissue • protective coverings of the body, linings of internal organs • Cells close together act as a barrier 2. Connective tissue • structural support of body parts, energy storage, etc. • cells separated by matrix; tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone, adipose tissue and blood...
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2009 for the course BIO 311D taught by Professor Reichler during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.
- Spring '08