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Lec 14 Feb 04 Wed AB rev - ab1 1 Acids and Bases...

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1. Acids and Bases – REVIEW (Chapter 16) A. Arrhenius Acids (16-1) Acids dissociate in water to produce H + (actually hydronium ions H 3 O +) HCl (g) Cl (aq) + H + (aq) Arrhenius Bases Bases dissociate in water to produce OH - NaOH (aq) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2 SO 4 (aq) SO 4 (aq) + 2 H + (aq) Limited definition; -- only for aqueous solutions -- NH 3 is a base (not according to Arrhenius) but it doesn’t dissociate to form OH B. Bronsted-Lowry Definition (16-2) acid = substance that is a proton donor. (can be cation or neutral) base = substance that is a proton acceptor. (can be anion or neutral) e.g. HA (aq) + H 2 O (l) A (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) acid acid base base Conjugate acid base pairs (related by H + ) Base/Acid Pairs : NH 3 / NH 4 + OH - / H 2 O H 2 O / H 3 O + CH 3 COO - / CH 3 COOH HCl, H 2 SO 4 = strong electrolytes! NaOH = strong electrolyte! ab1
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C. Lewis Acids and Bases (16-9) acid = electron-pair acceptor. base = electron-pair donor. B F F F N H H H : B F F F N H H H Lewis Acid Lewis Base does not have any protons electron-pair is the lone pair Product is the formation of a B-N bond; this is called coordinate covalent bond, with the electron pair donated by one atom Why is BF 3 acidic?
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