Are YOU intelligent? What are some of your intellectual strengths? Hey, don’t just read this over
and move on. I want you to think about this. It is important. Even jot down a couple ideas. As
teachers, we spend a lot of time thinking and talking about others’ intellectual strengths and
weaknesses. If we can do that to others, then we can at least in the privacy of our own computer
space do that for ourselves. I am going to have a discussion entry on this. Hopefully you can talk
about this as well as think about it.
Now let’s begin our journey into Chapter 4. Before you go any further, would you please define
“intelligence”? I don’t want a book definition, I want what YOU think.
Now, scan the different theoretical definitions and see who corresponds best to YOUR views.
There are lots of buttons to push in this lecture. Have fun.
Jean Piaget: a form of biological adaptation to the environment - the mechanism that allows
us to interact successfully with our surroundings.
Alfred Binet: (developer of first widely used intelligence test) involves judgment, practical
sense, initiative and the ability to adapt to circumstances
Alfred Binet Biography
Lewis M. Terman: (developer of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale) the ability to engage in
David Wechsler: the ability to think rationally, act purposefully and deal effectively with the
Charles Spearman: intelligence involves two factors; a general reasoning factor (g) and a
factor specific to the type of test taken.
L.L. Thurstone: rejected the concept of a single g and argued that there are seven basic
abilities or primary mental abilities: verbal meaning, inductive reasoning, perceptual speed, number
facility, spatial relations, memory and verbal fluency.
J.P. Guilford: developed a three-dimensional model of intellectual functioning. He believed
that there are five types of mental operations that can be performed (cognition, memory, divergent
thinking, convergent production and evaluation) and that these can be performed on four types of
content (figural, symbolic, semantic and behavioral) and that there are six different products that
might result (units, classes, relations, systems, transformations and implications). This 4x5x6 cube
yields 120 different possibilities of intellectual functioning.
Robert J. Sternberg: Intelligence is mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to
and selection and shaping of real-world environments relevant to one’s life.
Sternberg Triarchic Theory