AcidRain Article - J Chem Ecol (2008) 34:15011509 DOI

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Phytolacca americana from Contaminated and Noncontaminated Soils of South Korea: Effects of Elevated Temperature, CO 2 and Simulated Acid Rain on Plant Growth Response Yong Ok Kim & Rusty J. Rodriguez & Eun Ju Lee & Regina S. Redman Received: 5 May 2008 /Revised: 9 September 2008 /Accepted: 3 October 2008 /Published online: 28 October 2008 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Chemical analyses performed on the invasive weed Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) growing in indus- trially contaminated (Ulsan) and noncontaminated (Suwon) sites in South Korea indicated that the levels of phenolic compounds and various elements that include some heavy metals (Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were statistically higher in Ulsan soils compared to Suwon soils with Al being the highest (>1,116 mg/l compared to 432 mg/l). Analysis of metals and nutrients (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, NH 4 , N, P, S) in plant tissues indicated that accumu- lation occurred dominantly in plant leaves with Al levels being 33.8 times higher in Ulsan plants (PaU) compared to Suwon plants (PaS). The ability of PaU and PaS to tolerate stress was evaluated under controlled conditions by varying atmospheric CO 2 and temperature and soil pH. When grown in pH 6.4 soils, the highest growth rate of PaU and PaS plants occurred at elevated (30°C) and non-elevated (25°C) temperatures, respectively. Both PaU and PaS plants showed the highest and lowest growth rates when exposed to atmospheric CO 2 levels of 360 and 650 ppm, respec- tively. The impact of soil pH (2 6.4) on seed germination rates, plant growth, chlorophyll content, and the accumu- lation of phenolics were measured to assess the effects of industrial pollution and global-warming-related stresses on plants. The highest seed germination rate and chlorophyll content occurred at pH 2.0 for both PaU and PaS plants. Increased pH from 2 5 correlated to increased phenolic compounds and decreased chlorophyll content. However, at pH 6.4, a marked decrease in phenolic compounds, was observed and chlorophyll content increased. These results suggest that although plants from Ulsan and Suwon sites are the same species, they differ in the ability to deal with various stresses. Keywords Acid rain . Heavy metal . CO 2 . Temperature . Phenolic compounds . Growth . Pokeweed . Phytolacca americana Introduction Acid rain, air, and soil pollution have damaged natural ecosystems since the beginning of industrial development and urbanization. One byproduct has been atmospheric CO 2 enrichment. There is considerable evidence indicating that increased CO 2 levels have detrimental effects on terrestrial plants and ecosystems (Korner 1996 ;H a l le ta l . 2005 ). According to global climate change studies, atmospheric CO 2 concentrations will almost double within the twenty- first century, thereby, increasing mean surface temperatures on earth by as much as 8°C (Stainforth et al. 2005 ). Such an upward shift in the earth s temperature is predicted to have J Chem Ecol (2008) 34:1501 1509 DOI 10.1007/s10886-008-9552-x Y. O. Kim : R. J. Rodriguez : R. S. Redman ( * ) Biology Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA e-mail:
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2009 for the course BIOL 1108 taught by Professor Stanger-hall during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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AcidRain Article - J Chem Ecol (2008) 34:15011509 DOI

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