cpe229_lec09 - CPE 229 Course Notes: Lecture 9 Copyright:...

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CPE 229 Course Notes: Lecture 9 Copyright: 2005 Bryan Mealy The Middle Third of CPE 229 The overall CPE 229 course objective is the understanding of computers and their basic programming. More specifically, we’ll be study the basic computer on a block level in an effort to understand its basic functioning. We’ll use this understanding to extend the basic computer design and to obtain a good grasp of the hardware limitations of computers. A firm understanding of these areas will necessarily make us better assembly language programmers. Once again, CPE 229 is divided into three parts. The first 1/3 of the course was dedicated to the design and analysis of Finite State Machines (FSMs). The middle third of the course presents the background of basic computer design. The final third of the course is dedicated to assembly language programming. These three distinct portions of the course could be described as formulating a method (namely, finite state machines) to control a circuit (in this case, a computer) and controlling that circuit (in our case, with an assembly programming language). The first third of the course is officially over and the second third of CPE 229 is here. A review of the basic overview of the course serves as an introduction to the middle third of the course. A computer is a digital system which implies that it is comprised of a bunch of gates and flip-flops that have been connected in some intelligent manners. From a higher level, a computer can be viewed as nothing more than a special connection of all the standard digital circuits you’ve learned about up until now. A computer is basically no different than any of the other digital systems you’ve worked with except that it can become more complex. But then again, the complexity comes from the sheer amount of simple elements in the circuit and not the elements themselves 1 . The basic model of a computer that we’ll be working with in this course is shown in Figure 1. As you can see from this figure, a computer is comprised of three main components: the central processing unit (CPU), memory, and input/output (I/O). Our primary focus in the middle third of the course will be discussing some of the more basic issues associated with the CPU block in Figure 1. Another thing to keep in mind is that many devices in our modern world fit nicely into this model. A wristwatch is as much of a computer as is the computer on your desk (as is the microwave oven in your kitchen). Figure 1: A basic model for a computer system. The diagram we’re more interested in for the middle third of the course is the model shown in Figure 2. This model shows the two basic components of the CPU (central processing unit): the control unit and the datapath . Although the memory and I/O blocks of Figure 1 are both important and highly interesting, time constraints limit our approach to only a general overview of the topics associated with these blocks (which won’t be for a few lectures). These components are briefly described below. But before we look at this,
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2009 for the course CPE 229 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '09 term at Cal Poly.

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cpe229_lec09 - CPE 229 Course Notes: Lecture 9 Copyright:...

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