Chapter 4 - Trait Approaches - Final

Chapter 4 - Trait Approaches - Final - Chapter 4 Trait...

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Chapter 4: Trait Approaches Michael deGroot Comm. As Social Science Chapter 4: Trait Approaches 1. Background Behavior Theories (Not in the Text) 1. Real Science: Look at observable effects and causes, not anything within in our head. Overt Causes and Overt Response, Overt stimulus 2. When the social scientist wanted to study communication empirically, they adopted the scientific method and applied it to human behavior. 1. To study something scientifically, we must be able to quantify and measure both effect and causes 3. Call condition theories or learned theories 1. Classical foundational theories with causes and effects directly observable. 2. These theories came before all of the other cognitive theories. 4. Social scientist started using scientific methods through behavioral theories. 1. Classical Conditioning 2. B.F Skinner 5. No hypothesis about anything happening within our head. 1. Why: Cognitive variables, in research studies, couldn’t be observed at the time, so how could they be scientific? 2. Today, we test cognitive variables – they explain communication behavior in terms of what going on in our head – communication apprehension or ego- involvement, for example. 1
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Chapter 4: Trait Approaches = 2. Background on Behavior Theories 1. Characteristics 1. Deal only with observable causes and effects. 2. Do not assume that inner psychological variables c ause a person’s behavior . 1. Don’t explain behavior in terms of what’s happening inside someone’s head but examine the external response and effect – real science. 3. Stimulus Response theories or S R 1. Stimulus is the cause and Response is the effect. 2. Ex. Pavlog theory. 1. Not concerned with increasing or decreasing response with reward or punishment, but rather how to associate an unconditioned response with a conditioned stimulus. 3. Developed by Pavlov 1. Famous scientist who one Nobile prize for science. 2. Starved dogs until they were very hungry. He showed them meat and they began salivating. 1. Exposure to Meat created the effect of Salvation 2. Then, several times showed dog meat and rang a bell 3. After awhile, he simply just rang the bell and the dog salivated 2
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Chapter 4: Trait Approaches 3. Goal: Get an animal to respond to totally new stimulus which had nothing to do with the old stimulus – meat. 1. Pavlov, there no internal variable. All stimulus and response directly observable 3. Classical Conditioning Theory Pavlov 1. Terms 1. US = Unconditioned Stimulus . 2. UR = Unconditioned Response 3. CS = Conditioned Stimulus 4. CR = Conditioned Response. 2. Goal: 1. To teacher an animal /person to respond to a new stimulus in the same way it responds to the old stimulus. 1. Mean Salivation Bell Salivation 3. Steps: 1. US UR 1. E 2. US + CS UR 3. CS CR 4. Pavlov Example 3
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Chapter 4: Trait Approaches 1. Pavlov Experiment 2. US = Meat; UR = Salivation. CS = Bell. CR (UR +CS) = Salivation while the bell rings.
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