Phylogeny

Phylogeny - Phylogeny and systematics: Humans have an...

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Phylogeny and systematics: Humans have an innate tendency to organize items by differences we can see: Closets, matching shirt colors. Organization helps make sense of the world, helps us find things. Biologists have been trying to organize all the forms of life on earth for a long time. The first step: I. Taxonomy and Classification: Taxonomy—naming of species Classification-- arrangement of items (organisms) into classes or groups based on criteria (e.g. how similar they are to each other). Our biological classification system is based on a system devised by Carolus Linnaeus (mid 1700’s), a Swedish botanist A. Binomial nomenclature: Each species has a two part scientific name: Genus (identifies group) and specific epithet (identifies species). A genus is a group of closely related species. Panthera pardus B. The Linnean system of classification is hierarchical. Each group fits within a larger group that is more inclusive Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species K ing Philip C ame O ver F or G reat S ex. II. Systematics Biologists are not just interested in the names of the groups. More important is how the members of each hierarchical group are related to each other. Systematics -- the scientific study of the diversity of organisms, including how they are named, and their relationship to each other. Phylogeny--a description of the evolutionary history of relationships among organisms. III. What is phylogeny? If you were going to look at who was related to whom in a family, you would look at the geneology, i.e. the family tree. Within species geneology. If you look at an AMONG species (or higher taxa) geneology, then you are looking at the phylogeny.
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Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships among species (or other levels, e.g. families) at the tips, and among groups of species. IV. Why are phylogenies important?
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Phylogeny - Phylogeny and systematics: Humans have an...

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