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Topic: Ch.28: Great Promises, Bitter Disappointments, 1960 - 1968 Date: November 24, 2008 12:14 PM Compiled Messages Print Save as File Subject: chapt 28 Author: DANA LITCHMAN Dana Litchman November 21, 2008 Chapter 28 The Civil Rights Movement of the mid-1960’s was influenced by a mixture of individual, group, and government action towards change. Individuals knew they couldn’t leave their fate solely to the government and had to work themselves to improve their lives. These people began grassroots movements organizing sit-ins and other protests, which helped further the revolution. One major example of a few individuals, however very influential people, worked together to make a monumental difference was displayed in the March on Washington. Martin Luther King Jr. and other active members of the movement organized a mass protest of about 250,000 people which was followed by the historical “I Have a Dream” speech (Berkin 902). Individuals also formed groups like the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Congress of Racial Equality, also known as SNCC and CORE respectively. These groups organized substantial movements and provided people that wanted change a means to work for it. “Freedom Rides” were one way groups worked for the promotion of civil rights. These rides were some of the first attempts to integrate the busses, trains and terminals (Berkin 900). The government was also working towards civil rights for all in their “New Frontier.” The New Frontier was a reform put into place by Kennedy that stimulated major social and educational reform (Berkin 898). Setting the standards in laws, action from the government was necessary to jumpstart the change. However these laws did ensure equality through public actions and attitudes since many Americans refused to welcome the change. Johnson and the “Great Society” also helped to promote positive change in the rights for all. His idea was to create better economic and social conditions by removing barriers from health, education, region, and race. Soon after, the Fair Employment Practice Commission was formed to ensure that the government practice non-discrimination in hiring and firing workers. This was about the same time that the Voting Rights Act passed in 1965 that banned previously used methods to prevent blacks from getting to the polls to vote (Berkin 908, 911). Along with the government action, individual and group activists continued their public work knowing just because the laws were passed did end the discrimination immediately. Legislation was a major step towards the movement, but the real change would come in the attitudes of the public and that would take years to come. This was displayed gruesomely in freedom marches where protesters would be treated violently and sometimes severely beaten or even killed by police (Berkin 910). This influenced black non-violent groups searching for equality to be transformed into black power groups preaching Black Nationalism and separatism. Some of these groups, like the Black
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2009 for the course HIST 110 taught by Professor Haro during the Fall '09 term at San Diego.

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Chapter 28 - Compiled Messages http/ Close this window Compiled Messages Print Save as

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