Sociology Review # 3 - Sociology Review Sheet for Exam 3...

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Sociology Review Sheet for Exam # 3 Misc. Terms Rational choice theory – Actors weigh the pros and cons and rationally decide what will benefit them. Actors also limited by their knowledge of the choices and consequences. Author notes that gang members are limited by whether or not the gang will let them choose. Pathology - Deviance that involves individuals acting out of a particular psychological need without the support of traditionally defined subcultures. The term also infers widespread disapproval of the act and is seen as far beyond normative boundaries as to be “sick”. Peer debriefing - When you take your research to another researcher and see if it’s accurate. Snowball sampling - When an informant suggests or recruits future participants and so on. Othering - when a group brings reasons that show they are better/different from the other group. EX: Gay movement separates themselves from NAMBLA. Keeping others down, while keeping yourself up. Techniques of neutralization – suggests that delinquents use a special set of justifications for their behavior when such a behavior violates social norms. Such techniques allow delinquents to neutralize and temporarily suspend their commitment to societal values, providing them with freedom to commit delinquent acts. Virtual identity – Ex: instructor for class, your performance seems all knowing Actual identity – ex. However, doesn’t know everything, not perfect, little things that stigmatizing people and bring them down a few notches…Ex. See instructor in Class (VI) and then see them at a RAVE (AI) Discredited - already known. The cat is out of the bag. Stigma has been labeled. Discreditable – the person has not yet been labeled. However, it could happen any minute now
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3 types of stigma Physical – ex: wheel chair Weak Will – ex: bad faulty characteristics: alcoholics, smokers, cussing, stealing Tribal – ex: heritage, religion Reactions to stigma Defensive (can be used against you) Join a group Passing or covering (trying to hide it) Reclaim Identity Expressive groups – sing, talk about it (Ex: AA) Instrumental groups – more political, goal of changing social norms (Ex: Aids) Deviance avowal – making it out in the open and ends in humor. Ex: “I see I have a stigma and I’m making a joke about it.” Deviance disavowal – people know there is a stigma but don’t talk about it. Ex: guy leaves mom a note that says he’s gay. Mom reads note. Son and mom both know he’s gay, but never talk about it. 3 components of the ceremonial order Norms for behavior Expectations Rituals Emotion work – labor that “requires one to induce or suppress feelings in order to sustain the outward countenance that produces the proper state of mind in others.” Ex. waitress Disidentifier – any attempt to use a symbol to have a status. Ex. A ring to pretend you’re married.
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