US HISTORY STUDY GUIDE

US HISTORY STUDY GUIDE - Pendleton Act(1883 General info...

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Pendleton Act - (1883) General info - First national civil service measure the Pendleton Act requires that any civil servant of the US federal government take a standardized test making jobs based on merit for the first time in American history. This replaced a corrupt system of patronage or spoils system or promotion of loyal political members. It is important to understand that it did not have a direct impact because many people who worked in American government were not considered civil servants until the mid 20 th century. This act was passed by congress under President Chester A. Garfield (a half- breed) who succeeded Garfield after his assignation. Knights of Labor - (formed in 1869) General info - Labor organization made up of predominately industrial workers this includes skilled and unskilled laborers. There main points for reform: To reform wage labor based on production and product success as apposed to the size of the labor force, and to stop child labor. They used boycotts as apposed to strikes. They were a very secretive organization using secretive hand shakes and secret meeting even spies in their own party to weed out the “Pinkerton Men (big business spies).” They were also successful because they pooled resources and worked as a strong worker community. Significance – It was the first successful national labor union and first all inclusive labor union. On a more abstract level this organization paved the way for movements like populism and eventually evolved into what we know today as worker unions. Presidents Uriah S. Stephens 69-79 Terence V. Powderly 79-93 Unrestricted Submarine Warfare (USW) is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. In January, 1917 Germany implements USW on American and Allied ships. In late March three American ships are sunk by German U-boats and after convening Congress on April 2, America enters the WWI on April 6 th .
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