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GLYquestions02 - Topic 03 1 This process is important in...

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Unformatted text preview: Topic 03 1. This process is important in lithification causing a reduction in the pore space between unconsolidated grains in the sediment. 2. Sediments are converted to sedimentary rocks and account for 75% of exposed rocks on the Earth’s surface. 3. is a detrital sedimentary rock composed of grains ranging between 1116 and U256 mm. 4-. is a detrital sedimentary rock formed by cem entation of individual grains ranging in size from 1116 to 2 mm). 5. are sedimentary rocks formed of minerals that were precipited from solution with evaporation of the liquid they were dissolved in. 6. Most chemical sedimentary rocks form from precipitation from solution in fresh water (lakes, rivers, caves, springs) or in the sea. 7. sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation of minerals and rock fragments eroded from preexisting rocks (metamorphic, sedimentary, or igneous) or their weathered by-products. 8. Which of the following is a poorly-sorted detrital sedimentary rock: 9. sedimentary rocks form from the organic or inorganic precipitation of minerals from an aqueous solution or the accumulation of organic matter. 10. The White Cliffs of Dover are composed of this type of sedimentary rock made up of the calcium carbonate skeletal remains of microscopic marine algae: 11. Which of the following is a common cementing material in sedimentary rocks: 12. The process of binding the grains together is where minerals are precipitated in the pore spaces. 13. Aconglomerate is composed predominantly of rounded to subrounded clasts, a significant proportion being gravel size (>2mm). 14-. Chert has a concoidal fracture pattern, making it easy to work into tools and projectiles (arrowheads, scrapers, etc.) 15. Peat is brownish, soft, spongy and is almost entirely recognizable plant remains. Burial of peat decreases its water content and gradually changes it to coal. 16. Some sedimentary rocks begin as the weathered products of existing rocks. 17. Sedimentary rocks have two types of texture: clastic (or detrital) and non-clastic (crystalline). 18. The two principal types of sedimentary rocks are called and 19. Unconsolidated sediments (e.g. mud) are turned into sedimentary rocks (e.g. shale) by a process called 20. Claystones do not exibit fissilty but break into blocky masses. 21. The degree or sorting reflects: the degree of mechanical and chemical weathering producing the sediment, the transportation processes, and post-depostional processes that may alter the sediment grain size distribution. 22. A limestone is composed to a large extent by the skeletal remains of invertebrate fossils (corals, sponges, bryozoans, pelecypods, echinoids, etc.). 23. Dolomite differs from limestone in that some of the calcium has been replaced by magnesium changing it to magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2 . 24-. is the most common chemical sedimentary rock. 25. Lithostatic pressure is the pressure resulting from the weight of the overlying rocks. 26. The sphericity of a particle is the degree to which the shape of the particle approaches the form of a sphere. 27. A is a coarse grained limestone composed of poorly cemented shells and shell fragments (often of near-shore species). 28. Shale differs from mudstone by breaking into small pieces along bedding planes. This breakage characteristic is called 29. is a soft chemical sedimentary rock composed almost entirely of the calcium carbonate skeletons of microscopic marine phytoplankton (coccolithophores). 30. Fossils are preserved in sedimentary rocks. 31. is a biochemical sedimentary rock composed of combustible material derived from the partial decomposition of plants. 32. Sorting refers to the range of particle density in a clastic sediment or sedimentary rock. 33. The most commonly used grain size scale in use is the Scale that divides particle size (e.g. clay, silt, sand, gravel) by a specific size range in millimeters (e.g. clay is less than U256 mm). 34-. Conglomerates and breccias are distinguished on the basis of how rounded or angular their coarse fragments are: 35. is an important process in lithification causing a reduction in the pore space between unconsolidated grains in the sediment. Topic 04- 1. When particles in a sedimentary bed change from coarse at the bottom to fine at the top, bedding is defined as 2. Correlations of ancient or fossil tracks, trails, and burrows with those in modern environments has allowed scientists to use these trace fossil to interpret such ancient environmental factors as diverse as water and sediment oxygen levels. 3. are sub-polygonal shrinkage cracks produced by the drying of clay rich sediment. 4-. Marine vertebrate fossils in Mesozoic sedimentary rocks include turtles, fish, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, and icthyosaurs. All were nektonic (free swimming) and had global distribution. 5. Invertebrate fossils are less common from the marine realm than from the terrestrial environments. 6. Spores and pollen can be found in the fossil excrement of dinosaurs (called coprolites). 7. describes beds at an inclination to the horizontal. 8. Dinosaur remains are commonly found from eolian derived sedimentary rock. 9. refers to the accumulation of deposits that exhibits specific characteristics, reflecting a specific environment, and grading into other sedimentary accumulations formed at the same time but with different characteristics. 10. Micoscopic fossils of algal plants and protozoans can be used to estimate such parameters as: sea surface temperature, water depth, salinity, water clarity, etc. 11. Disturbed beds are usually mixed or contorted in some manner. They indicate proximity to unstable sediment sources or disturbances by earthquakes and volcanoes. 12. The colors of sedimentary rocks are reflections of the climate and environments they form in and the composition of the sediments within them. 13. Iron can cause green, purple, and black color in rocks. 14-. are finely bedded sedimentary rocks (usually claystone to siltstones) often alternating between carbon rich and carbon poor beds. 15. Current ripples are symetrical with gentle slopes in the upwind or upstream direction and steeper downwind or downstream slopes. 16. Hematite can produce sediment shades of yellow and brown. 17. is a clay formed by the alteration of volcanic ash. 18. are essentially little waves of sand that develop on a depositional surface. 19. occur where there is an even back-and-forth motion of water or air, as offshore just outside the surf zone. 20. Sediments accumulating in an aquatic environment, low in oxygen content, are usually this color: 21. Dinosaur remains are only found in sedimentary rocks. 22. occur on the base of beds (usually a siltstone or sandstone) and represent a filling of a groove, track, or depression of the underlying bed. 23. Tracks and trails of organisms can be preserved in sediment and are considered a type of trace fossil. 24-. Sedimentary rocks formed in fluvial or river environments have produced the greatest number of dinosaur remains. 25. Leaf characteristics of fossilized plants are very indicative of temperature range, rainfall amounts, and climate zones. 26. sediments are usually fine grained and converted into shales and siltstones, sandstones, and coal. 27. Sedimentary rocks rich in volcanic ash tend to have light greenish to blueish green hues 28. Current ripples are asymmetrical: 29. Deltas are large bodies of sediment deposited where streams or rivers empty into lakes or the sea. 30. Limonite or goethite lends a red or pink color to rock. Topic 05 1. Ice age mammoths and rhinoceroses found frozen in Siberia are not considered fossils: 2. are tracks, trails, and burrows of organisms that live on the surface (epifaunal) or beneath the sediment surface (infaunal). 3. are the most common fossils in amber. 4-. is the process by which porous spaces in the shell, wood, or bone are filled with minerals. 5. is the process of removal of the original skeletal material and simultaneous atom by atom secondary replacement by another mineral. 6. Dinosaur footprints are not considered fossils. 7. are the fossilized solid excretory products of animals. 8. Most marine invertebrates have hard parts or skeletons made of calcite or (a less stable form of calcite). 9. The most common fossils preserved in peat are 10. An external mold is formed by dissolution of the shell and filling of the former interior and shell area with sediment or minerals. 11. If a leaf falls into wet concrete and leaves an impression, this impression would be an example of a: 12. Teeth are commonly made of and are often preserved in their unaltered mineralogy. 13. or dessication of fossils results from a drying out of tissues prior to complete decomposition. 14-. is the process by which the soft tissue' 1s preserved as a carbon film by volatilization of the hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. 15. are stomach stones swallowed by animals to aid in digestion. 16. Pleistocene vertebrates have been recovered from the tar pit at this site: 17. Ifa shell of an invertebrate is filled with sediment and the shell later dissolves, the sediment filling the shell can produce a: 18. The fossilization process by which porous spaces in the shell, wood, or bone are filled with minerals is called: 19. A fossil is any evidence, direct or indirect, of the existence of organisms in prehistoric time. 20. In the process of replacement the original microstructure is usually destroyed. 21. An internal mold is an impression of the outside of the shell or fossil showing only the external detail of the fossil. External molds are negative expressions of relief relative to the original. 22. Permineralization makes fossil bone denser than living bone: 23. During recrystallization, the external form is unchanged but internal microstructures are obscured or destroyed. 24-. Each of the following are factors that enhance preservation except 25. Vertebrate fossils are never found in peat. 26. Some marine and fresh water sponges secrete 27. Common microfossils made of silica are 28. An impression of the exterior of a shell or bone is a: 29. Pyritization is the process where the original material of the skeleton or sometimes soft tissue becomes replaced or coated with pyrite during fossilization. 30. Hillsides are good for fossil collecting, particularly where there is erosion. 31. Mummification or dessication might occur in an arid environment by the burial of an animal in hot sand shortly after death. 32. Most is the hardened resin of conifer trees. 33. Peat forms in deprived and acidic waters. 34-. Leaves, crustaceans, fish, and insects are often carbonized. 35. Although insects are some 75 percent of all living species, they are far fewer than 1 percent of described fossil species. 36. Silica replacement of marine fossils is relatively uncommon. 37. Permineralized or petrified wood is most common in sediments also containing 38. is a viscous hydrocarbon that escapes through fractures or faults from underground hydrocarbon sources. 39. Each of the following are factors that inhibit preservation except 4-0. Most dinosaur bones are carbonized. ...
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