Philosophy 1-5 Notes Ex - Philosophy Week 1 Making Decisions\/Choices How we view different issues Historical influences Religion Family Peers School

Philosophy 1-5 Notes Ex - Philosophy Week 1 Making...

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Philosophy Week 1 Making Decisions/Choices How we view different issues... . Historical influences . Religion . Family . Peers . School . Prior experiences . The law . Age Philosophy- a theory or attitude held by a person that acts as a   guiding principle for behavior Ethics- philosophical study of morality (deals with moral principles that govern a person’s behavior/ help to make decisions) Bioethics- the moral issues and problems that have arisen as a result of modern medicine and research (issues often life-or-death , principles can be personal, organizational, worldwide, etc.) e.g. = planned parenthood/abortion Laws- all citizens must adhere or risk liability, mandatory Legal decisions- shape medical ethics and involve moral reasoning Ethical dilemma- a conflict between moral obligations that is difficult to reconcile and that requires moral reasoning (i.e. both are right/both are wrong)/ a situation necessitating a choice between two equal alternatives (sometimes undesirable).E.g. deciding to save (pregnant) mother or baby Ethical principles- provide the tools to aid in resolving conflict in a just, fair and moral manner
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Ethical Theories (divisions) . 1) Normative- moral standards that regulate right/wrong conduct and take a stance, basic principles & virtues identified to guide morality , provide coherent, systematic and justifiable answers to questions . 2) Nonnormative- involves analyzing mortality without taking a moral position  Meta-ethics- study of origin/meaning of ethical concepts  Descriptive ethics- factual descriptions/explanations of moral behaviors and beliefs . 3) Applied ethics- theories and principles are applied to actual moral problems  History
Virtue- behavior showing high moral standards . 1) Greek–Socrates - the ultimate object of human activity is happiness , and the necessary means to reach it, virtue (virtue=knowledge) . 2) Plato - did not consider virtue to exist in wisdom alone, but in balancing intellect , emotion , and appetite . 3) Aristotle – the real founder of systematic ethics - True happiness, though presented to him by the gods as the object and reward of virtue, can be attained only through a man's own individual exertions . Munson’s Taxonomy
 of Ethical Theories 1) Utilitarianism 2) Kant’s ethics 3) Ross’ ethics 4) Rawls’ ethics of justice 5) Natural law ethics/moral theology 6) Theories without principles Utilitarianism/Consequentialism .  Bentham and Mill (1700 to 1870) .  “Actions are right as they tend to promote happiness , wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness .  Principle of utility or “the greatest happiness principle” - the most benefit for majority .  Evaluate consequences of actions to choose morally right action .  Rule Utilitarianism - actions are morally right if they comply with a rule that leads to the greatest good (conveying wrong rule=wrong)
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Kant’s Theory
  German philosopher late 1700’s  Deontological theory ( duty/obligation )  Ethics must be both unconditional (no exceptions) and universal   (applicable to all human beings).
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  • Summer '19
  • Philosophy, Ethics, Health care provider, Prima facie, Prima Facie Duties, personal health information

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