Psychology Study Guides

Psychology Study Guides - Psychology Study Guides Chapter 1...

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Psychology Study Guides Chapter 1 19 Questions 1) Experimental Bias- researcher influences the research results in the expected direction 2) Early Schools of Though Structuralism: sought to identify the basic building blocks, or structures , of the mind through introspection (Wundt and Titchener key leaders) Functionalism: studied how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment (William James key leader) Psychoanalytic/ psychodynamic perspective: unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts (Freud was the founder) Behavioral perspective: objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior (Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner were leaders). Dog Salivating experiment. Humanist perspective: free will, self-actualization, and a positive, growth-seeking human nature (Rogers and Maslow were key figures) Cognitive perspective: thought, perception, and information processing Neuroscience/ Biopsychology perspective: genetics and other biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system 3)Three Types of Descriptive Research: Naturalistic Observation-- observation and recording of behavior in natural state or habitat ( Observe without interfering) Survey-- assessment of a sample or population Case Study-- in-depth study of a single participant ( very subjective) 4) Informed Consent- Voluntary participation Restricted use of deception Debriefing Confidentiality Alternative activities Freedom to Withdraw- self explanatory 5) Basic Research : conducted to advance scientific knowledge. For the sake of knowledge no planned usage.
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Applied designed to solve practical problems. Results will be applied towards existing problem 5) Psychology: scientific study of behavior and mental processes (hard vs. Soft science). Psychology focuses on critical thinking and is scientific (not just negative). 4 Goals 1. Description: tells “what” occurred 2. Explanation: tells “why” a behavior or mental process occurred 3. Prediction: identifies conditions “under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur” 4. Change: applies psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted behavior or to
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