L1slides

L1slides - Chemical engineering is the profession concerned...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 12
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chemical engineering is the profession concerned with the creative application of the scientific principles underlying the transport of mass, energy and momentum, and physical and chemical change of matter. T.W.F.A Russell MM Denn 1972 nu puysms courses. way, men, we a339, 1791‘ a. IBViBW? -b‘1rs‘fi,-fr0m----&Kp6fience we- TABLE 1.0. US. Production £11986 ' " . ‘ ‘ -' '- - - ‘ Chgmicals(i_;11091b)_ V . H __ ‘ . {in}? tony. . ' A - ' A Nitrog'éfi"-""“ Oxygen - . Ethylene Lime. ‘3: 7 -. . “'9 ‘3‘:'35:}’::?EE:'%::T:'$3:;::; i:::‘-‘51‘---- ‘.-‘ ‘ 5.5? ' .PQ‘téSfiKKzo-L 1 , - g 31:92? ‘PestiCidcs and herbicideS:(in 10515) . _ . Ammonia ‘ . ;‘He¥bi9id¢$..f. - Z~ Sodium'hydrqggidenm H ‘_ _. «22:01,;(“99:~ff"'IpsfifiSE-idéS-éjjf;1 3 Z Chlorine .- * . - " £0.98 {Phosphmc aeid _ . _ _‘.1‘8i‘.4_1-" )1} ff. ” " Propyifme. .- u -177:;-.34,2_{?-.:1fv -;PV_1‘%Szti§§;-I(in::¥96~1§)f._.’. _. ‘ ' - .. 1.7. ,i: ‘ i; ThérfijOSefiiing‘rgsiffi; 1. ‘S‘odimfi‘é‘afisafiafite"- H _. _ . . Ethylene dichsl-efiée“ ' ' . : 14f.‘5‘3‘._"733f;:72.3fl3f-5:5:€9§¢§91§3§17ea’-.' £31: Nitric acid - ' ‘ '7 13.121 "13521":2:EP9§¥¢§E§§§’ 31903335.)- Urea ' l 12.06 I; “"isThgwijléé-‘fic' Wigs" V 1 E'Bgfié-“i'ii-z ‘ olypropfl'enémppiy""'rs>'=In: -- : Ammonium nitraiée ' 11.11 :z..-B¢n;9as2;fzev . . Carbon'dibxide” . Vinyl chioride _ ‘ -;A ~ Styrene _ . _ a 73845;. 3:. '- ' ._ ,ngeéter j: v ' a :2; 2:91? mnemls (inllaéionslf acrylic:- _ ‘ _ .. . .. Phosphate ro'ck " I ‘ Salt . .I V , V -. . I 3638- I c _ I: §ynthetic rubber (in metric tons) 4380 ‘ ' ' I I I ‘ ' " Now the field of Chemical Engineering is mdch more thandesigning, building and operating large petrochemical plants and oil refineries e New Materials 6 polymers _ 9 ceramics 6 co mposite-s _, 6 electronic materials 1 :1 2 0 Biotechnology ' O fermentations e biological product purification O biomedical engineering 0 food processing 0 Spec:alty Chemicals 0 surfactants O cosmetics 9 drugs 0 pesticides/herbicides a explosives e Hazardous Substances Control 0 process design/control 6 remediation 6 treatment 0 waste minimization e Energy 6 fossil fuels; 9 nuclear ‘ e electrochemical Faculty. UCLA Deoartmenr of Chemical and Blomolecular Engineering 9/25/08 11:08 AM UCLA - HSSEAS ~ CBE Home --— Faceity Search i .... . . r 3 Chemical and Biomolecuiar Engineering Facuity Quick Links Links l . - Professor and Vice Chair Jane P. Chang @jochangCguclaedu Emerm Facuny graduate Program 3 Phil, Massachusetts institute of Technoiogy, 1997 l ' Undergraduate proggagg" ? Research Area: Eiectronic Materiais Synthesis and Piasma Processing Research Staff and _ Visitors Undergraduate Program _ 5 Obie.ct.l"95.. .. .. I Department Staff _ 999$?Web __ Professor Panagiotis Christofides £53 pdc@seas.ucla.edu seminar-series" _ H r 7 Ph. El, Univeristy of Minnesota, 1996 0P9” Family Dapariment smears Research Area: Process Controi & Dynamics, Computationei Modeling & 3 1305‘th _ Simulation! Complex Systems ; Dept Research Centers ? l Dean of Students ‘ information for Faculty Egggvgévfi Che Ker _ Professor Yoram Cohen Q yoram@uclatedu , EGSA p ens, University ofDeiaware, 1981 UCLA Academic Career Postings 2 Research Areas: Poiymer Engineering, Separation Processes & I Personnel Office Environmental i'ransport, Exposure and impact Analysis 3 . . UCLA Faculty Training Program Resources NIH Biotechnoiogy Professor. James F. Davis @jdavis@conet.ucia.edu Student Resources 5 Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1981 Forms 2 Research Area: information Technology Department Software = TA Guide UCLA Engineering Library: $0“ Resemh Eqmp : Professor Robert Hicks rhicks@ncla.edu Calendarf0r5513 BH 3 Ph.D., University of California. Berkeley, @984 Calendar for 6649 EH Research Area: Semiconductor Process & Surface Science Professor Louis .3. lgnarro lignarro@mednei.ucla.edu Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1966 Research Area: Molecular and Medical Pharmacotogy Nobel Laureate Professor James C. Liao 1:31 liaoj@ecia.edu Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1987 Research Area: Metabolic Engineering. Systems Biology and Synthetic Biology Graduate Admissions Officer Professor Yunfeng Lu iuucla@ucla.edu Ph.D., University of New Mexico, 1998 Resaarch areas: nanosiructured materials and devices, moiecular design httpq’[www.chemeng.ucla.edelFacultylFaculty2.htmi Page 1 on Facuity'. UCLA Department of Chemicai and Btomoiecular Engineerlng QIZSIDB 11:08 AM and self—assembly. energy storage anct conversion, biomimetic materials and system. Professor Vasilios Manousiouthakis vasilios@seas.ucla.edo PhD, Renssetaer Polytechnic lnstitute,1986 Resaarch Area: Process Control and Design Professor and Chair Harold Monbouquette narold@seas.ucla.edu Phil, North Carolina State University, 1987 Research Area: Biochemical Engineering Assistant Professor Gerassimos Orkoulas a makis@seas.ucla.edu Phil, Cornell University, 1998 Research Area: Molecular Modeling & Simulation Assistant Professor Tatiana Segura ta tsegura@ucla.edu, 310w2D6-3980 PhD. Northwestern University. 2004 Research Area: Biomaterials, Non—virat Gene Detévery Professor Selim Senkan E3: senkan@seas.ucta.edu Ph.D., Massachusetts institute of Technology, 1977 Research Area: Chemical Reaction Engineering, Catalysts 8: Combustion Assistant Professor Yt Tang yitang@ucla.edu, 310—825—0375 Ph.D., California institute o? Technotogy. 2032 Research Area: Metabolic Engineering, Natural Product Biosyntnesis Contact Us | ©2006 Separtment of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering 5531 Boelter Hall. Los Angeies. CA 90095—1592. ?ei: (310) 825—2046. Fax: (310) 2064107 httpzl[www.chemeng‘ectaedulFacaity/Facnlty2.§1tml Page 2 of 2 Five Curricula in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Core Curriculum Biomolecular Engineering Biomedical Engineering Environmental Engineering Semiconductor Manufacturing "Chemical engineers are uniquely trained to apply [science and engineering] fundamentals to complex unstructured problems of the kind industry faces..." Director of Engineering ese , DuPont) i Wu' Hams... «JJ _ lingpilot. (We guess pro-feso-rs of ch - ENGlNEERlNG IN THE NEWS Chemito En. hat ate the jobs that Americans admire the most? According to a SUE—- vey conducted by the _ University of Southern California and the University of California at Irvine and. reported in Graduating Engineer, chemical engineers—the only engineers to make the top-ten listm-come in ninth. Asked to rank 740 occupations, 1,166 adults ranke ‘ "e. in order as the most prestigious: physician, college president, astronaut, highdevel government official, lawyer, physicist. college : o a . uterscientist.chemi t ' 'a cal engineering get a double pat on the back.) ' ' Keiko Nakao o'f USC‘S Sociology Department said that the jobs with the most _ status “are'generally those that require a large amount of education and specialized training, and that command large incomes.” Large income, by itself, isn’t enough, since drug dealing ranked at the bottom. Move Over, MBAS _ in a‘ development it describes as “a happy lesson in the law of supply and demand,” FORTUNE points out in its issue of April 20 that “chemical engineers have almost caught up with MBAS” with a technical bachelor’s degree and one year’s on—the-job experience. FORTUNE estimates that the average start- inn cnlnrx: l-nrpl'tpc i: nnw (£10 157 S keep- ace with thaesir'MiA (solicits. Say it Ain’t Se... “ An article on iraq‘s. atomicygeapons pro- gram in the April issue of EEEESpectrum ' reports that the Iraqis have relied on a uran- ium enrichment program that most scien- tists believed was so outdated and messy that no country would ever use it. So sure were they, that ranch of the information, developed at Oak Ridge as part of the Manhattan Project, was declassified. According to Spectrum, “among the more explicit searces at safely assumed ? . to have been used ital: Sieietttists” was “De gallop-meats Enrichment, a collection of symposium papers published by the America-n Institute of Chemical Engineers in 1977." Play It Again, Fats... On a lighter note, player pianos were a popular form of entertainment back in the badold days before LPs and CD3. Recently, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) designated one of the earliest recording devices that produced master rolls for these player pianos, the Q- R—S marking piano, as a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark. The Q- RJS, invented in 1912 by Melville Clark, recorded performances, including those of Fats Waller and Jelly Roll Morton. According to ASME, player pianos were flan l'ir‘cl k'lll‘f‘fik'L'l-lll :‘nncnmm-rinwir‘nc tn tlk‘f‘ .——-.r»-w.. lesio. direCtor ot the Sate and save. Schoot crime has dropped 76% . ....-....... .-.....'. _..... V .L. _.. Continued on Page A24 teeter a Garneies Victor Mills: ' p. H How He invented The Products You’ve Used All Your By Dan Moreau Investor '3 Business Daily Victor Mills proved that in- vention isn’t just inspiration and perspiration —— but appli- cation. Mills was perhaps America's top inventor of consumer products, devel- oping pracncsl applications for slurry of all kinds. During a iifetime career at Procter 8r. Gamble (30., he refined wood pulp into the first disposable diaper, Pampers, and potato mash into Pringles chips. He aiso put the proper mix into Duncan Hines cake mixes. In fact, he‘s largely credited with helping Eilt P&G front a craft~baseci company to a technology-based, indus- trial corporation. ' man’s. inventor — “Nobody will ever match his achieve- ments,” said Gordon Brenner. P&G‘s vice—president for research and devel- opment. Miiis. who died last month at the age of 100, was strictly a business practicai in his thinking, proce- dures and out- comes. When he set out to deveiop'a prod- uct, he thought a b o u t a ti d i n g value from start to finish. lie insisted that his products be not only commercially viabie, but innovcv tive, visibiy different from what_was already available. “What good is it if it I isn’t?" he would argue. ‘ ' Then, he made sure he came up with efficient ways to make the pioduct. He _ was even efficient in his experiments, - aiways starting out with ‘what was at hand and moving on- from there. . For example, until he came aiong. P&G made Ivory‘soap iii-batches, a slow and expensive process. His first step in. automatiogthe process: Was simply to runsorncsoap through an ice— crcant machine.’ - Refining the procednre, he leven'tu'aiiy developed a continuum oces‘ r soap making, perhaps his most signifi~ cantengineering accompiishrnent. 3 - He used giant rnetal drums, "normally used to polish aluminum foil. to rnix iguocan lilacs cake mixes. which origi- naliy a an uneven consistency. The drurns made the mix particies so line Continued on . Page r115 meme- rnn an l‘t‘t‘.‘ Even if we could bring dinosaurs back to iife, iilte in Jzn'nssic Park, they couldn‘t survive today. The reason? The Earth’s atmosphere now may he only one-eighth as dense as it was when dinosaurs flourished. Using research from diverse sources, including noted astronomer Carl Sagan and aerodynamicist Theodore von Kt’lmu’tn, Octave Levenspicl, an emeritus professor of chemical engineering at Oregon State University, says that the giant flying pterosanrs of 100 mitiion years ago could not fly today because the atmosphere is too thin. And, virtually all of the giant land-dwciling dinosaurs woutd “overheat” for the same reason. Levenspiel, the recipient of AlChiE's 1997 Warren K. Lewis Award and an AiChE member for more than tit) years, discussed the engineering principles behind dinosaur research in a presentation at the Annual Meeting in Los Angcles. “'l‘oday’s South American Couriers—— with their 12—foot wingspans and 25— pound weightmare the largest creatures that can support and propel themselves through the air according to basic aerodynamic principles," said Levenspiel. “'l‘he pterosaur quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of more than 45 feet haif that of a Boeing 737 and weighed more than 150 pounds. Either it eouidn‘t fly—but it did—Jar the atmosphere had to be much denser at that time.” Since much less prover is needed to filth " fly at higher atmospheric pressures, Levenspiel calculates that Earth's atmosphere was at least eight times denser in the Cretaceous period. Moreover, he and fellow chemical engineerm-and AtChE meinberm’t’om Fitzgerald propose that Earth’s earliest atmosphere—4.6 billion years ago—may have been tilt) times denser than today’s Jurassic Park?-—Engineering-wise, t lust high C02 atmosphere would have amplified the greenhouse effect and would have kept the Earth warm enough to form water and life. “And, the dense C02 atmosphere also encouraged cxpiosivo plant growth, which ted to the carboniferous forest that left us with vast deposits of coal and hydrocarbon liquids and gases that we find today,” and consisted primarily of carbon dioxide (€02), making it roughiy comparable to that of Venus today. “This scenario resoives a number of puzzles and contradictions in today‘s picture of Earth’s early life,” said Levenspiel. “For example, it heips explain the ‘faint early sun’ theorym coined by Cari Sagan—which said that the sun was 25 to 40 percent less iuminous billions of years ago," he noted. With this lower luminosity, Earth’s surface would have been permanentiy frozen, preventing early tife from l'onning. Levenspiei said that a high pressure, Levenspiei added. What happened to Earth’s C02 and where did it go? Some of it was converted to fossil fuels, but most of it disappeared from the atmosphere by dissolving in sea water. There it combined with basic oxides brought up by the spreading sea floor, eventually forming massive layers of limestone that new cover much of the earth. “Geological data shows that if the C02 contained in all the known limestone deposits were turned into a gas, the density of the atmosphere would increase by at least a factor of 70mtnore than enough for the pterosaurs to fly," said roommatescatamarans:insert-u Commentary on Use of Risk Assessments Released Doesn’t fy But, Levcnspiel noted, even if the temperature then were similar to that of today, dinosaurs today would still die because of poor heat transfer. “When creatures become very large, they have more trouble removing heat. When today's largest creatures—whaies— become beached, rescuers pour water on them—"not to assist breathing, but to help cool the skin. If they cannot reguiatc their heat, they die,” said Levenspiei. “But, a denser atmosphere removes heat faster. An atmosphere eight times denser wouid havo allowed the giant dinosaurs to survive,” he added. Why did they conduct this research? “‘Dinosaurland,’ as portrayed by the scientific community today, is marked by a witch: host of contradictions with our basic knowledge in sciencem biology, aerodynamics, and heat transfer, in particular. Most curiously, such contradictions are ignored by ‘dino~ experts.’ This whole area is a fruitqu one for chemical engineers to explore and with which they can have fun. Besides, since so many children first become interested in science when they learn about dinosaurs, what better way to make us heroes to our children and grandchildren?“ Levenspiel eoneiuded. Editor's" note: See pages 6 and 7for more presentations from the Annual Meeting. TABLE A Initial Job Placement of Chemical Engineering Graduatesin-ZOOOH-ZOM in Percent (Source: AIChE, NY, NY). Industry BS MS PhD Chemical 23.3 1.8 ‘ 21.3 Fuels 15.7 7.6 10.6 Electronics 15.9 27.4 29.5 Food/Consumer Products 10.6 6.6 4.3 Materials 3.1 2.5 3 .4 Biotechnology Related Industries (Pharmaceuticals) 9.3 I 14.7 15.9 Pulp & Paper 2.1 1.5 1.5 Engineering Services Design & Construction 5.6 6.6 1.9 Research & Testing 1.8 4.1 3.4 Environmental Engineering 2.4 2.5 1.5 Business Services 5.8 2.0 2.9 Other Industries 3 .9 2.5 3 .9 XXV goo? - o Chemécel eogineeriog satertes continue to move on an upward trend in zoom Chemical engineers broke the $1ooi< batrie' w {spotting a median salary or” 5103,73o, uo 12.6% from two years ago. Furthermore, average starting S‘lera’es have risen to nearlv Soocoo Kmswme Cum, EDlTOR-lN-CHIEF, CZ? ' gs continue :0 look up for chemical engneeriug salenles. According to results none the recently con— ducted biennial eleE employment-and—salery survey, chemical eugiueers enjoyed cloublefig'lt growth in income. Based on data from IES’QOUdBDES who provided base salary figures, the median annual salary is $103,730 (Table l) — a 12.6% increase compared to the median annual salary record- ed Lo 2005 ($92,150). This is well above the rate of inflation, which the Consumer Price index reported 253.2% for the same time period. Similar to how the previous survey was conducted in 2005 (CEP. Aug. 2005, 919.2247}, a questionnaire was e- mailed in May to members selected at random, excluding members knowu to be either retirees or students. {Survey methodology details cert be found on p. 27.} A total of 2,210 members responded. of which: 2,039 (92.3%) are full-time salaried employees; 80 (3.6%) are self-employed, fufletimc; 55 (2.5%) work part-time, either self— ' employed or e: salaried jobs; 28 (1.3%) are not werle'tug, but are seek— log employment; and 8 (0.4%} are 1 unemployed by choice. These data are comparable to the 2005 survey. As one would expect, the respon- dents are highly educated —— 43% hold only bachelor’s degrees, 22% have master’s degrees, 25% have doc- ‘ torates, and ll}% have MBAS. Furthermore, 29.3% hold a profes- " Because salaries are highly vm'eb'te. 1.1235(th arithmetic average or _ of a few very high salaries. Thus. the median is the pm median. Also not: that cementech do not always add subgroup because some rasnontfients ole-size rules were applied 'end in some cases no date are tabulated. lei-{SEE Emoleysoeoi & Salary Suwey e eeeaesee fieee te all the salaries). Means, unlike: medians, are affected by exmme values, and in the case of salaries t Cover Story sional engineer's {.PE) license. Taking a quick look at age and gender, the respondents are primarily male {8 57c) and have a median age hen/veer; 4-6 and 50. Table '2. gives mean and median base salaries* by years of experience. The mspo-ndcnts’ range of work ex—gefience era, for the most part, evenly split with almost 12% of the respondents bay—inc less than six years of professional work «r-H. mum" 22.. a. 9...: e .. . fist. ‘3 “Sfiéjifi two meesures'or“ ‘tyoica? salaries are given —~ the median ( '1: point where half the salaries are higher and heifers lower . and the end to be higher then medians because “erred measure of a typical salary or income, and deciles md quartiles help to convey the variability around the to 100 Flue to rounomg. Stoulzrly, the numbers of responses do not always met-cit [rte torel populencns of a do not answer all quesuons. 5111c: values based on a very small number of cases are likely to be msleadtng, cummum sam- CEP August 200'! wmv..=ici‘:e.org.v’cep 2 5 28 introduction to Engineering Calculations Chap. ‘1 Table 1.5 lists the detailed composition of air. The average molecular weight is 2900 lb/ 100 lb moi = 29.00. TABLE 1.5 Composition of Ciean, Dry Air near Sea Levei W Percent by volume Component = mole percent Nitrogen 78.084 Oxygen 20.9476 Argon 0.934 Carbon dioxide 0.0314 Neon 0.001818 Helium 0.000524 Methane - 0.0002 Krypton 0.0001 14 Nitrous oxide 0.00005 Hydrogen 0.00005 Xenon " 0.0000087 Ozone Summer 0--0.00.0007 Winter 0«~0.000002 Ammonia 2 O—trace Carbon monoxide 0—trace iodine 0—0 .000001 Nitrogen dioxide 0—~0.000002 Sulfur dioxide 0«—0.0001 M Do not attempt to get an average specific gravity or average density for a mix— ture of solids or iiquids" by multiplying the individual component Specific gravities or densities by the respective mole fractions of the components in the mixture and sum- Ining the products. The proper way to use specific gravity is demonstrated in the next example. EXAMPLE 1.14 Application of Specific Gravity in the production of a drug having: a moiecuiar weight of 192, the exit stream from the reac— tor flows at the rate of 10.3 Limin. The drug concentration is 41.2% (in water), and the specific gravity of the solution is 1.025. Calculate the concentration of the drug (in kg/L) in the exit stream, and the flow rate of the drug in kg moi/min. Solution For the first part of the problem, we want to transform the mass fraction of 0.412 into mass per liter of the drug. Take 1.000 kg of exit solution as a basis for convenience. See Fig. W! 111 A gas containing C0, C02, and CH4 is analyzed with a gas chromatograph. The out- put of the gas chromatograph appears on a strip—chart recorder as shown here. 0 {t ’t7/ 4&3 For each of'the three species, the area under the ak is r011 hi ro ortional to the number of moles of the indicated substance in the sample. Use the information shown to determine the mole fractions and mass fractions of C0. C02, and CH4 in the gas. mmflWW¢m_u——.__n .w-.. minmvmfim.Mmfl.M .__.__.-_.._.________ _ ..V.. .Mwiuwiw .;:_..;‘f. ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 03/29/2009 for the course CHE 100 taught by Professor Monbouquette during the Fall '07 term at UCLA.

Page1 / 14

L1slides - Chemical engineering is the profession concerned...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 14. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online