History 7B: Reading SummariesPRE-MIDTERM Litwack: How Free is Free? Talks about black codes, Freedman’s Bureau, 13,14,15 Amendments Revolution going backwards → Civil Rights Act of 1866 and happens again in 1964Meaning of slavery changes over time -- even though it was abolished, the meaning just changedFreedom seems to be abstract -- different understandings of freedom between blacks and whitesDifferent in types of freedom -- physical freedom (being able to leave plantations) legal freedom (protected under the law of rights)Freedom equated to having property → economic independenceReading highlights progress Question of what name to take, master’s name was often easiestRacial relations remained unchanged: presence of blacks became an intrusion, an equality most whites found threatening Feared consequence: racial amalgamation (mixing) Violence with no reason, riots, massacres, injustice white supremacy Out of This FurnaceOut of This Furnace by Thomas Bell is the story of a Slovak family's immigration to America. The novel tells the story of one family and its trials and tribulations as they make their way from Hungary to America. The story of three generations of the Kracha family is given in thenovel from the first immigrant in the family, George Kracha to the third generation represented by Dobie Dobrejcak. The reader follows the family as they make their way in America. Out of This Furnace is written in novel form but it describes the life the immigrants faced when they came to America. It opens with George Kracha walking from his village in Hungary toboard a ship. He spends his money for a party for a woman and arrives in New York with fifty cents in his pockets. He walks from New York to White Haven, Pennsylvania where his relativeswork for the railroad. He begins his work career in America. He eventually follows his friends and relatives to work in the steel mills. The work is hard and the hours are long for subsistence wages. His wife takes in boarders, which is the only way workers can get ahead and accumulate savings. He opens his own business, and eventually loses everything.The story continues with the next generation. George's daughter marries Mike, who works in the steel mills. She also takes in boarders. When Mike is killed in a steel mill accident, she has to make ends meet since there is nothing but $75 in benefits from the company. Her children comprise the next generation with Dobie as the main character. Each generation has it a little easier than the previous, but the work in the mills is still long and the wages low. Technology makes each generation's life a little easier but the reader watches as each generation is a little more Americanized than the previous one.