312_3360001 - Chapter 11 Project Time Management 11.1...

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Chapter 11 Project Time Management 11.1 INTRODUCTION. Time is an important aspect of job management. If a construction project is to pr _ efficiently and be completed within the contract time, the work must be carefully pl - and scheduled in advance. Construction projects are complex, and a large job can ill' literally thousands of separate operations. If these tasks were to follow one another in secutive order, job planning and scheduling would be relatively simple, but this is no case. Each operation has its own time requirement, and its start depends on the comple of certain preceding operations. At the same time, many tasks are independent of one other and can be carried out simultaneously. Thus, a typical construction project invo _ many mutually dependent and interrelated operations that, in total combination, con . a tangled web of individual time and sequential relationships. When individual ta k quirements for materials, equipment, and labor are superimposed, it becomes obvious -- project planning and scheduling is a very complicated and difficult management functi 11.2 THE CRITICAL PATH METHOD The critical path method (CPM) is a procedure developed especially for the time man ~ ment of construction projects. CPM involves the analysis of the sequential and time c acteristics of projects by the use of networks. It is a widely used procedure for construe time control, and contractors are now frequently required by contract to apply netw methods to the planning and scheduling of their fieldwork. Complete and comprehe '_ time management systems have been developed based on the CPM procedure. The r is referred to books that describe these systems in detail. * This chapter confines itself t _ discussion of the basics. CPM is a project management system that offers a basis for informed decision m ._ on projects of any size. It provides information necessary for the time scheduling of _ construction project, guides the contractor in selecting the best way to shorten the pro' duration, and predicts future manpower and equipment requirements. The procedure starts with project planning. This phase consists of (1) identifying -'- elementary items of work necessary to achieve job completion, (2) establishing the order which these work items will be done, and (3) preparing a graphical display of this planning information in the form of a network. The procedure just described may suggest that proje * See, for instance, R. H. Clough, G. A. Sears, and S. K. Sears, Construction Project Management, 4th ed .• -. York: Wiley-Interscience, 2000). 312
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11.4 Project Planning 313 planning must follow a definite step-by-step order of development. In actual practice this is not the case; the three planning steps generally proceed more or less simultaneously. However, for purposes
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312_3360001 - Chapter 11 Project Time Management 11.1...

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