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Lecture 1 - 010809

Lecture 1 - 010809 - DNA Structure and Function Lecture 1...

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DNA Structure and Function Lecture 1 Chapter 4 MBOC pages 191-207 (4th addition) Chapter 5 MBOC pages 195-210 (5th addition) BSRBII Room 451C
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Concepts DNA, chromosomes Centromeres, telomeres Genes and Genetic structure An example of evolution directing modern genomic structure of a chromosome
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Prokaryotic DNA - DNA is typically attached to plasma membrane which makes it easy to extract - Chromosomes are usually circular - DNA can also exist as plasmids - miniature chromosomes - small circular pieces - readily transmitted - Distinction between plasmids and chromosomes is poorly defined - Prokaryotic genomes have a single origin of replication - Genes are organized as operons - Genes do not contain introns
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Eukaryotic DNA is found in thread- like structures in the nucleus
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Is all DNA in eukaryotic cells found in the nucleus?
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In 1940s using prokaryotes it was determined that genetic material is DNA
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Structure of DNA was correctly predicted in 1953 James Watson Francis Crick Maurice Wilkins Rosalind Franklin
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Photograph 51 X-ray diffraction image of DNA in the “B” confirmation Image was taken by Rosalind Franklin
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1953 Jonas Salk announced the success of the first vaccine trial for polio A gallon of gas cost $0.20 New York Yankees win 5th world series in a row Ian Fleming published his first James Bond novel called Casino Royale
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Terminology Introduction DNA molecule is: – Double stranded Double helix – Each strand is referred to as: • strand • chain
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Basic building blocks of DNA A human diploid cell has 2 meters of DNA
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DNA is polar and the coiling generates grooves
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Major and Minor Grooves - Space Filling model of 1.5 turns of the DNA double helix - Each turn is made up of 10.4 nucleotide pairs - The coiling creates two grooves, the major and the minor groove.
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Summary Genome = Complete set of DNA Chromosomes = thread-like structures of DNA Complementary base pairing = 2-ring purine base is paired with a 1-ring pyrimidine base, joined by hydrogen bonds A-T pairing involves 2 hydrogen bonds G-C pairing involves 3 hydrogen bonds DNA strands have chemical polarity referred to a 5’end and 3’end
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DNA in Eukaryotic nuclei Nucleus About m Interphase nucleus
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Examples of eukaryotic chromosomes at different stages of the cell cycle - DNA is stained with fluorescent dye - DNA compacts in preparation for mitosis. - When cells are not in mitosis the - Chromosomes are exist in a more Extended conformation - This makes the identification of dividing cells in mitosis a relatively simple exercise using a microscope
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Cell Cycle
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DNA in the Cell Cycle
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Chromosome structure
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Telomere - Found at the ends of chromosomes - With successive cell divisions and lineage commitment, telomeres shorten - Lengthening of telomeres at the ends of chromosomes is catalyzed by an enzyme called telomerase (protein and RNA)
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