11_MolecularSyst

11_MolecularSyst - Insights from Molecular Systematics 26.4...

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Insights from Molecular Systematics 26.4 - 26.6
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3 Molecular trees span both short and long periods of time because molecules evolve at different rates
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4 Conserved sequences like rRNA resolve deep divergences
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5 Rapidly evolving sequences like mtDNA resolve more recent divergence “mtEve”
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6 Molecular phylogenies rely on two types of homologous genes: orthologous and paralogous
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7 A B C D Ancestral species A B C D A B C C 1 D Species 1 Species 2 Orthologous (Used to build species trees) Paralogous (Used to reconstruct gene family expansions)
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8 Duplicate genes have important functions PLoS Genet. 2008, March, 4(3)
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9 Gene number does not predict complexity Rice: 40,000 - 50,000 Mustard weed: 25,500 Pufferfish: 21,000 Human: 20,000 - 25,000 Nematode: 20,000
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10 Molecular phylogenies track evolutionary time if we assume a molecular clock
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11 Molecular Clocks The molecular clock is a yardstick for measuring absolute time of evolutionary change based on the observation that some genes and other regions of genomes appear to evolve at constant rates
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12 Neutral Theory Neutral theory states that much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by Darwinian selection It states that the rate of molecular change in these genes and proteins should be regular like a clock Architect of neutral theory is Motoo Kimura
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Rate of hemoglobin evolution (Kimura 1983)
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2009 for the course BISC 120Lg taught by Professor 11:00-01:50pm during the Fall '06 term at USC.

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11_MolecularSyst - Insights from Molecular Systematics 26.4...

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