Organic Chemistry Final Review

Organic Chemistry Final Review - Organic Chemistry Final...

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Organic Chemistry Final Review 1. chemistry of carbon compounds 1.2A vitalism Organic compounds – compounds obtained from living organisms Inorganic compounds – compounds from nonliving sources “Vital force” was necessary to synthesize organic compounds 1828- Wöhler 1.2B Empirical and Molecular formulas 1784: Antoine Lavoisier showed organic compounds are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen 1811-1831: Liebig, Berzelius, Dumas developed quantitative methods for determining the composition of organic substances 1860: Cannizzaro distinguishes empirical from molecular formula 1.3 Structural Theory 1.3A Isomers Different compounds that have the same molecular formula Constitutional isomers: different compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in their connectivity (in the sequence in which their atoms are bonded together) Constitutional isomers have different chemical and physical properties (boiling point, melting point etc) 1.3B The tetrahedral shape of methane Van’t Hoff and Le Bel – 1.4 Chemical Bonds: the octet rule Two types of bonds: Ionic – formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another to create ions Covalent – a bond that results when atoms share electrons
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1.4A Octet Rule (1) Atoms form bonds to produce the electron configuration of a noble gas because the electronic configuration of noble gases is particularly stable. (2) For most atoms of interest this means achieving a valence shell configuration of 8 electrons corresponding to that of the nearest noble gas. (3) Atoms close to helium achieve a valence shell configuration of 2 electrons. Electronegativity (1) Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract electrons. (2) Electronegativity increases from left to right and from bottom to top in the periodic table (noble gases excluded). (3) Fluorine is the most electronegative atom and can stabilize excess electron density the best. (4) Atoms can form either ionic or covalent bonds to satisfy the octet rule. Ionic Bonds (1) When ionic bonds are formed atoms gain or lose electrons to achieve the electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas; there is a transfer of electrons from one atom to another. (2) The resulting oppositely charged ions attract and form ionic bonds. (3) This generally happens between atoms of widely different electronegativities. Example: Lithium Fluoride (a salt) (1) Lithium loses an electron (to have the configuration of helium) and becomes positively charged. (2) Fluoride gains an electron (to have the configuration of neon) and becomes negatively charged. (3) The positively charged lithium and the negatively charged fluoride form a strong ionic bond (actually in a crystalline lattice). Covalent Bonds (1) Covalent bonds occur between atoms of similar electronegativity (close to each other in the periodic table).
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